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an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)


connected by a ligament or membrane that allows some movement (radius and ulna or tibia and fibula)


Bones fit together like a peg in a hole, secured by fibrous tissue


Type of joint in which bones are joined by hyaline cartilage
sternum and true rib bone

synovial joint

a joint so articulated as to move freely

uniaxial joint

Bones are free to move in one plane, around one axis (one direction), ex: Hinge joint - flexion/extension, Pivot joint

biaxial joint

bones are free to move in two planes around two axes (two directions), ex: Condyloid and Saddle - flexion/extension & abduction/adduction

multi-axial joint

movement occurs in three planes and around three axes such as plane and ball and socket joints

free nerve ending

dendrites that lack any obvious structural specialization; used to generate sensations of warmth, coolness, pain, tickle, and itch, microscopic sensory nerve endings in the skin that are not connected to any specific sensory receptor

golgi ligament

sensitivity to tension and stretch

pacinian corpuscle

a specialized bulblike nerve ending located in the subcutaneous tissue of the skin. sensitivity of high frequency vibration


located in joint capsules, sensitivity by compression and weight bearing but not motion, no role in proprioception

ruffini ending

a skin receptor cell type that detects stretching of the skin., slow adapting, stretching of skin/bending of fingernails


a ball-and-socket joint between the head of the humerus and a cavity of the scapula, the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm

glenohumeral joint

Synovial ball and socket joint; Between the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the head of the humerus; Large, loose joint capsule allows a lot of motion, but provides little stability

shoulder articulation

Sternoclavicular joint (S/C)
Acromioclavicular joint (A/C)
Glenohumeral joint (G/H)
Scapulothoracic articulation (S/T)


connects sternal (medial) end of clavicle with manubrium; has anterior and posterior portions; is a complete disc at the sternoclavicular articulation (important for shock absorption)


connects acromion of scapula with lateral clavicle; has superior and inferior portions (has an incomplete articular disc that projects into the joint from the superior part of the articular capsule)

shoulder flexion muscle

180, Anterior Deltoid, Coracobrachialis, Pec Major, Biceps Brachii, Supraspinatus

shoulder extension muscle

60 degrees, Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid (Posterior Fibers), Teres Major

shoulder abduction muscle

middle deltoid, supraspinatus, C5, 180

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