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Basic definitions and theories

Deviance:

Any behaviour that violates social norms, and is usually odf sufficient severity to warrant disapporval from the majority of society

Crime:

The violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law

Social control:

Attempts by society to control thoughts and behaviours of individuals

Criminal justice system:

A formal response by police, courts and prison officials in regards to alleged violations of the law

Labelling theory:

The idea that deviance comes from society's reactioons rather than the actions of an individual

Stigma:

A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self concept and social identity

Medicalisation of deviance:

The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical tradition

White-collar crime:

Crime committed by people of high social rank during the course of their occupation

Retribution:

An act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the victim

Deterrence:

The attempt to discourage criminality by using punishment

Rehabilitation:

A program for reforming the offender, to prevent repeat offences

Recidivism:

Later offences committed by those previously convicted of crimes

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