Arts & Humanities

135 terms by PastorJ 

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Study cards for IWC1 at WGU

_____________ is a skill and imagination used to create or produce aesthetic objects

Art

Which of the following purposes of art is met by a Baroque composer writing a requiem mass?

Illuminating the spiritual

Which of the following functions of art is best reflected in an anti-war protest song?

Political and social commentary

Artists often employ _______________to achieve the effect of three-dimensions on flat surfaces.

shading and perspective

The use of the same visual element several times in a work of art is called:

repetition.

The strength, or purity of a color is its:

intensity

_______________ is the meaning of the work of art.

Content

A natural and comforting arrangement of visual elements is called:

harmony

Which of the following purposes of art is most clearly reflected in a documentary on the NASA space shuttle program?

Representing the world

The uneven distribution of elements throughout an artwork is:

asymmetry

______________ is a work of art from a specific historical time or place.

Artifact

A sense or feeling of depth, either actual or implied, is called _____________.

space

_________________ is when artwork creates a sense of motion through line, form, and juxtaposition

Dynamics

______________has the properties of direction, width and length. The path of a moving point through space

Line

The surface quality of materials, either actual or implied, is called:

texture

An artist's use of color is sometimes called _____________.

palette

In two-dimensional art, texture is ______________.

Figurative

_______________ makes a work of art feel cohesive and finished, with all the elements looking as though they belong together

Unity

Which of the following functions of art is reflected in a museum collection of 19th century Wedgewood china?

Historical artifact

____________ is the process of making works of art by transferring an inked image to another surface (usually paper).

Printmaking

In ________________, an image is printed by forcing ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing. This method of printmaking allows printers to make large areas of uniform color in their printed designs.

serigraphy

In __________________, an image is printed by leaving the image surface raised, with remaining areas cut away, as with woodcut or linoleum cut printing.

Relief printing

In _____________ , an image is printed using the antipathy of oil and water; a flat surface with a design area (image) that is ink-receptive is printed and the non-printed area is ink-repellent.

lithography

In ____________, an image is printed from a recessed design. An incising or etching technique may be used to create the design on the surface of the plate to be pressed against paper.

intaglio

__________ is the thick application of paint creating a textured surface on the canvas

Impasto

______________ involves burning an image onto metal with acid, which allows for creating intaglio with precise lines.

Etching

_____________ is a method of etching (intaglio) that imitates the broad tints of a water color.

Aquatint

_______________ is any method of producing an image by using the action of light on a light-sensitive medium such as a film or a sensor.

Photography

named after its French inventor Louis Daguerre, an early (1839) photographic process where an image is made directly onto a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate, without using a negative

Daguerreotype photography

This American photographer was a leading advocate of Pictorialism.

Alfred Stieglitz

Is this true or false?
Drawing is confined to the use of dry media.

False

Serigraphy is also known as ____________.

screenprinting

Photography as a visual art requires the photographer to:

design an image
compose an image
execute an image

A water-based paint that uses egg, glue, or casein as a binder is called:

tempera

the ordered recurrence or repetition of elements

Rhythm

One advantage of this media for painting is that it does not yellow with age.

acrylic paint

This technique creates the illusion of depth through gradations of light and shade.

Chiaroscuro

Straight or pure photography was advocated by these photographers.

Group f/64

In drawing, using dots for tone, texture, and shading is called __________.

Stippling

Two-dimensional art that is so naturalistic that it appears to have depth and distance has been dubbed by the French ________________.

Trompe l'oeil

The printmaking technique of ___________ prints an image from a recessed design incised or etched into the surface of a plate.

Intaglio

____________ is the size, shape, and volume of forms, occupies a more prominent place in three-dimensional art. T

Mass

Is the least likely factor for a three-dimensional artwork having greater impact on the viewer than that of a two-dimensional work of art.

The use of perspective

The three-dimensional _____________ is typically the most prominent line.

artwork's silhouette

______________ can be defined as a three-dimensional work of art.

Sculpture

_____________ A sculpture employing three-dimensions and meant to be viewed from any and all angles.

Full round sculpture

_____________ A sculpture employing three dimensions, raised from or attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side. Mount Rushmore is an example.

Relief sculpture

_____________ A sculpture, such as a mobile, in which the artist employs flat and elongated (almost two-dimensional) materials. Example: Vertical foliage, Alexander Calder, 1941

Linear sculpture

_________ is a representation of a person, animal, or event, often for celebratory or monumental purposes. Example: Felix de Welden's U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial (Iwo Jima Memorial) at Arlington National Cemetery

Statue

__________ is a significant person on horseback. Example: Rudolf Siemering's The Washington Monument in Philadelphia

Equestrian sculpture

A _______________ is a representation of a man or woman from the chest up. Example: Bust of Emperor Tiberius

Bust

A __________________ is a sculpture that features moving water. Example: Carl Milles Triton in Stockholm, Sweden

Fountain

A _______________ is a type of kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents. Example: Vertical foliage, Alexander Calder, 1941

Mobile

A ______________ is a type of sculpture which emphasizes the substances or materials from which it is made. Example: Maria Magdalena carved from precious gemstones.

Glyptic

An ______________ is a sculpture designed to make a statement and then cease to exist. Example: Christo and Jeanne-Claude's Wrapped Coast, One Million Square Feet, Little Bay, Australia (1968-69).

Ephemeral sculpture

______________ is when the sculptor molds or casts an artwork.

Substitution

In _______________ sculpture, the image is carved into the stone or material.

sunken relief

This type of sculpture is transitory, designed to make a statement.

Ephemeral

________________ is the science and art of designing buildings, environments, and other structures.

Architecture

Architects consider a variety of ______________ in creating successful structures.

elements

First and foremost, buildings need to withstand the external environment (wind, snow, rain, etc.) and they must be structurally sound (which is where engineering is required)

Technical element

Function represents the practical uses of the building and how that is reflected in its form.

Functional element

Architecture works with space.

Use of space element

What kind of artistic statement is the architect making?

Artistic element

An architectural style that emerged in the 1930s which stressed function and, with the use of new materials, designed buildings to have outside walls of materials such as glass, instead of large heavy walls.

International Style

The belief that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.

Functionalism

The inclusion or combination of several different styles in one composition or work of art.

Eclecticism

The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment.

Scale

The relative relationship of shapes or forms to one another.

Proportion

A curved masonry structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.

Arch

A common structural element of architecture resembling the hollow upper half of a sphere.

Dome

A projecting beam or bracket stabilized by the weight of the wall from which it extends (such as a balcony). Example: Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater house (1935)

Cantilever

An architectural design where horizontal pieces or beams (lintels) are held up by vertical columns (posts).

Post-and-lintel

A decorative device generally placed at the top of a column as a transition for the eye as it moves from post (column) to lintel beam.

Capital

An architectural design where a wall supports itself, roof and floor.

Bearing wall

Construction where a skeletal framework (often steel cages) supports the structure.

Skeleton frame

Ability of a material to withstand bending.

Tensile strength

Ability of a material to withstand crushing.

Compressive strength

_____________________ is the design and construction of three-dimensional outdoor space for beauty and use.

Landscape architecture

A sculpture employing three-dimensions attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side is called:

Relief sculpture

Frederick Law Olmstead is known for his design of:

Central Park (NYC)

A projecting beam or bracket stabilized by the weight of the wall from which it extends is called a:

cantilever

______________ is when a sculptor shapes the material by hand.

Manipulation

Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel is an example of a:

found object sculpture

When a sculptor casts an artwork, he or she is using the process of _______________.

Substitution

A kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents, is called:

Mobile

All of the following are considered a key factor in landscape design.

the function of the design
those for whom the spaces are created
the influence of the particular site and surroundings

Architects who design buildings based on the purpose of the structure are following ___________________.

Functionalism

Variation

how often an element is used and the relationship of one element to another.

__________________ is the representation of objects receding into the distance in two-dimensional art.

Perspective

_____________ is a vivid water-based paint, usually applied to paper, with outstanding brilliance and translucence; also, term for resulting artwork.

Watercolor

_______________ is the relative relationship of shapes or forms to one another in regards to size, height, width, length, or depth.

Proportion

_________________ is the exact duplication of elements (shapes, forms, etc) on either side of a (usually imaginary) straight-lined central axis.

Symmetry

________________ is the shape or mass of an object within an artwork or composition.

Form

_______________ in printing, a technique in which the intended printing surface is left raised, with remaining areas cut away.

Relief

________________________ is a mold from which a sculpture is cast.

Negative

_______________________ is when a viewer considers foreground and background independently and recognizes the separation between them.

Shifting perspective

_______________________ is the use of foreshortening and a vanishing point to create the illusion of depth.

Linear perspective

_________________________________ is the use of light, atmosphere, and haziness to indicate depth or distance.

Aerial or atmospheric perspective

________________ is a way of connecting the parts of a work of art.

Articulation

____________________ is a sculptural relief in which forms extend from the background to at least half their depth.

High relief

___________________ is a painting technique which originated in ancient times, using pigments mixed with melted beeswax as a binder.

Encaustic

______________ is the perception of reflected or emitted light in terms of hue, value, and intensity.

Color

_________________ is the recurrence of the same visual element in a work of art.

Repetition

____________________ is when art is assembled from common every day items. Example: using a bike wheel or other object as art.

Found object

Serigraphy

a printing technique that forces ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing.

Linear sculpture

a sculpture employing two-dimensional materials.

Scale

the size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment.

____________________ is the place to which a viewer's eye is drawn in a work of art.

Focal area

Unity

when all elements in a work of art give a sense of oneness or self-contained completeness.

Drypoint

a printmaking technique (intaglio) involving drawing directly onto the surface of a metal plate with a sharp, pointed tool, often with a diamond point.

Artistic Form

elements (lines, shapes, colors) of a work of art organized to effect participants.

Weathering

the effect of the weather/environment on the surface of an artwork.

Hue

the common name of a color (red, blue, green, yellow) and its position in the spectrum or on the color wheel.

Collage

a composition made of various materials (as paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.

Graphite

a soft form of carbon used in pencils.

Oil paint

a paint made of color pigments mixed in slowly drying oil; its main binding agent for pigment is linseed oil.

Subtraction

when the sculptor carves or cuts away unwanted material to create the work.

Fresco

a painting technique that applies water-based paint to a wet-plaster surface; also, resulting artwork.

Value

the relative lightness or darkness of color.

Balance

a sense of equilibrium in an artwork, achieved through weight, attention, or attraction of visual elements.

Juxtaposition

the side-by-side placement of objects in an artwork or composition.

Addition

when a sculptor adds or combines material (sometimes called built sculpture).

Pastel

a soft, colored chalk stick or crayon made of pigments and a gum binder, usually applied to paper; also, resulting artwork.

Gouache

watercolor to which an opaque white has been added; also, resulting artwork.

Low Relief

sculptural relief that projects very little from the background; also called bas-relief.

_______________ can be defined as an innate or learned ability to appreciate a work of art.

Aesthetic perception

Artistic media

are the materials (and techniques) employed to create works of art.

Media

is the plural of medium.

Visual elements

(line, form, color, space, and texture) are the basic visual material with which artists create works of art.

Visual principles

(repetition, balance, unity, focal area) are ways artists arrange the elements to greatest effect.

Composition

describes an artist's technique, or specific use of the general visual elements and principles.

Rule of Thirds

holds that in a more interesting composition the focal point is not in the center but rather in an outlying area.

Pictorialism

used soft focus, special filters and lens coatings, darkroom manipulation, and innovative printing processes to try to match the aesthetic effects of painting and printmaking. Alfred Stieglitz was a leading advocate of pictorialism.

Group f/64

which included Ansel Adams, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West, advocated straight (or pure) photography, eschewing any manipulation, and looking to depict scenes as realistically as possible.

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