lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world, beginning at birth & continuing until death.
-important b/c major part of family, education>prepare individuals to be members of the social world.
-factors> necessary for the survival of the individual but also for survival of society & its groups.
the transmitters of culture-ppl, organizations,& institution that teaches us how to thrive in our social world.
socialization is the stated goal.
-usually have some official or legal responsibility for instructing individuals
-primary roles & responsibilities
do not have to express purpose of socialization, but they function as unofficial forces that shape values, belief, & behaviors.
"the look-Glass Self"
a reflective process based on our interpretations of the reactions of others.
-we imagine how we want to appear to others
-others make judgements & respond
-our interpretation of ppl's reactions feed into our self-concept.
-we experience feelings & react based on our interpretation.
Theorists Credit w/ developing the Looking Glass Theory
Charles H. Cooley
GEorge Herbert Mead
Parts of Self
I- the spontaneous, unpredictable, impulsive, & largely unorganized aspect of the self.
Me- ablity to see the self as others see them & critique the behavior of the I.
:the me has learned the rules of society through socialization & interaction & it controls the I & its desires.
Stages in the Development of Self (Mead)
-imitation stage: child >3 prepare for role taking by observing others & imitating their behaviors, sound ,& gestures.
-play stage: involves a kind of playacting in which the child is actually "playing" a role.
(ie) playing house
-significant others:parents, guardian relatives or siblings whose primary & sustained interaction w/ the child are especially influential
-game stage: the child learns to take the role of multiple others concurrently.
(ie) 6yr old playing t-ball
process gradually builds up a composite of societal exceptions
-child learns to internalize the expectations of any "significant other"
process of shedding one or more positions &taking on others
-involves changing from establish patterns learned earlier in life to new one suitable to newly acquired status.
-major transition in your life
(ie) divorce, military
Rites of passages
are celebrations or public recognitions when individuals shift from one status to another
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
involves an individual or a family that has national loyalty to more than one country.
Conflict Theorist view Socialization
w/ linkage between various parts of the social world based on competition w/ or even direct opposition to another part.
-believe that those who have power & privileges use socialization to manipulate individuals in the social world to support the power structure & the self interest of the elite.
Structural Functionalist view Socialization
tend to see different levels of the social world operating to support each other.