|Socialization||lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world, beginning at birth & continuing until death.|
-important b/c major part of family, education>prepare individuals to be members of the social world.
-factors> necessary for the survival of the individual but also for survival of society & its groups.
|Socializing Agents||the transmitters of culture-ppl, organizations,& institution that teaches us how to thrive in our social world.|
|Formal Agents|| socialization is the stated goal.|
-usually have some official or legal responsibility for instructing individuals
-primary roles & responsibilities
|Informal Agents|| do not have to express purpose of socialization, but they function as unofficial forces that shape values, belief, & behaviors.|
|"the look-Glass Self"|| a reflective process based on our interpretations of the reactions of others.|
-we imagine how we want to appear to others
-others make judgements & respond
-our interpretation of ppl's reactions feed into our self-concept.
-we experience feelings & react based on our interpretation.
|Theorists Credit w/ developing the Looking Glass Theory|| Charles H. Cooley|
GEorge Herbert Mead
|Parts of Self|| I- the spontaneous, unpredictable, impulsive, & largely unorganized aspect of the self.|
Me- ablity to see the self as others see them & critique the behavior of the I.
:the me has learned the rules of society through socialization & interaction & it controls the I & its desires.
|Stages in the Development of Self (Mead)||-imitation stage: child >3 prepare for role taking by observing others & imitating their behaviors, sound ,& gestures.|
-play stage: involves a kind of playacting in which the child is actually "playing" a role.
(ie) playing house
-significant others:parents, guardian relatives or siblings whose primary & sustained interaction w/ the child are especially influential
-game stage: the child learns to take the role of multiple others concurrently.
(ie) 6yr old playing t-ball
|Generalized other|| process gradually builds up a composite of societal exceptions |
-child learns to internalize the expectations of any "significant other"
|Resocialization|| process of shedding one or more positions &taking on others |
-involves changing from establish patterns learned earlier in life to new one suitable to newly acquired status.
-major transition in your life
(ie) divorce, military
|Rites of passages||are celebrations or public recognitions when individuals shift from one status to another|
|Positive Sanctions||a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward|
|Negative Sanctions||an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution|
|Transnationalism||involves an individual or a family that has national loyalty to more than one country.|
|Conflict Theorist view Socialization|| w/ linkage between various parts of the social world based on competition w/ or even direct opposition to another part.|
-believe that those who have power & privileges use socialization to manipulate individuals in the social world to support the power structure & the self interest of the elite.
|Structural Functionalist view Socialization||tend to see different levels of the social world operating to support each other.|