A&P Chapter 10

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Muscle tissue, one of the four basic tissue groups, consists chiefly of cells that are highly specialized for

contraction

Which of the following is a recognized function of skeletal muscle?

produce movement
maintain posture
maintain body temperature
guard body entrances and exits

At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, and each perimysium and endomysium, come together to form a

tendon

The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the

epimysium

Nerves and blood vessels that service a muscle fiber are located in the connective tissues of its

endomysium.

A fascicle is

a group of muscle fibers that are encased in the perimysium.

The delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the

endomysium.

The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a(n)

tendon

Put the following structures in order from superficial to deep:
1. muscle fiber
2. perimysium
3. myofibril
4. fascicle
5. endomysium
6. epimysium

6, 2, 4, 5, 1, 3

Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for

muscle contraction.

In a sarcomere, thick filaments are linked laterally by proteins of the

M line.

The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fiber is

the ability to produce large amounts of the muscle proteins needed for growth and repair.

Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called

myoblasts

The repeating unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the

sarcomere

The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the

sarcolemma

Which of the following best describes the term sarcomere?

repeating unit of striated myofibrils

Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers

have many nuclei.

Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum?

storage and release site for calcium ions

Which of the following best describes the term Z line?

thin filaments are anchored here

The region of the sarcomere containing the thick filaments is the

A band.

The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of

a transverse tubule and two terminal cisternae.

Cross-bridges are portions of

myosin molecules.

The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the

H band.

Each skeletal muscle fiber contains ________ myofibrils.

hundreds to thousands

At rest, the tropomyosin molecule is held in place by

troponin molecules.

Each thin filament consists of

two actin protein strands coiled helically around each other.

Which of the following best describes the term titin?

protein that accounts for elasticity of resting muscle

The region of the sarcomere that always contains thin filaments is the

I band.

At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by

tropomyosin molecules.

The series of membranous channels that surround each myofibril is the

sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Which statement about the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers is true?

Tubular extensions of the sarcolemma penetrate the fiber transversely.; Cross striations result from the lateral alignment of thick and thin filaments.; Each fiber has many nuclei.;Muscle fibers are continuous from tendon to tendon.

The thin filaments of striated muscle are made primarily of which protein(s)?

actin; tropomyosin; troponin; nebulin

When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,

the H bands and I bands get smaller. ; the zones of overlap get larger.; the Z lines get closer together.; the width of the A band remains constant.

Since each myofibril is attached at either end of the muscle fiber, when sarcomeres shorten, the muscle fiber

shortens

In response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

calcium ions.

Each skeletal muscle fiber is controlled by a motor neuron at a single

neuromuscular junction.

The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the

synaptic cleft.

Active sites on the actin become available for binding after

calcium binds to troponin.

Receptors for acetylcholine are located on the

motor end plate.

The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by

transverse tubules.

The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion after contraction is

active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Which of the following acts as an ATPase during the contraction cycle of muscle?

the head portion of the myosin molecule

When calcium ion binds to troponin,

tropomyosin moves into the groove between the helical actin strands.

Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction?

thin filaments and thick filaments

After death, muscle fibers run out of ATP and calcium begins to leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm. This results in a condition known as

rigor mortis.

In rigor mortis....

the myosin heads are attached to actin.; ATP is depleted.; muscles are inextensible; cross-bridge cycling is absent.

In a sarcomere, cross-bridge attachment occurs specifically in the

zone of overlap.

Physical evidence that supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction includes

decreased width of the H band during contraction.

Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after

acetylcholine binds to chemically-gated channels in the end plate membrane.

The following is a list of the events that occur during a muscle contraction.
1. Myosin cross-bridges bind to the actin.
2. The free myosin head splits ATP.
3. Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
4. The myosin head pivots toward the center of the sarcomere.
5. Calcium ion binds to troponin.
6. The myosin head binds an ATP molecule and detaches from the actin.
The correct sequence of these events is

3, 5, 1, 4, 6, 2.

How would the loss of acetylcholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle?

It would cause spastic paralysis (muscles are contracted and unable to relax).

When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the end plate membrane becomes

more permeable to sodium ions.

The cytoplasm of the neuromuscular terminal contains vesicles filled with molecules of the neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

When contraction occurs,

the H bands get smaller.; the Z lines move closer together.; the width of the A band remains constant. ; the I bands get smaller.

Which statement about excitation-contraction coupling is incorrect

Calcium ion is released from the transverse tubule.

Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters that are released by ________ when the action potential arrives.

exocytosis

The muscle weakness of myasthenia gravis results from

loss of acetylcholine receptors in the end-plate membrane.

A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drug's effect on skeletal muscle contraction?

reduces the muscle's ability for contraction

The rapid rise and fall in force produced by a muscle fiber after a single action potential is

a twitch.

When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly at a high rate, the amount of tension gradually increases to a steady maximum tension. This is called

complete tetanus.

A muscle producing tension that peaks and falls at intermediate stimulus rates is said to be in

incomplete tetanus.

If a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended, a second, more powerful contraction occurs. This is called

wave summation.

A single motor neuron together with all the muscle fibers it innervates is called

a motor unit.

The contraction of a muscle exerts a pull on a bone because

muscles are attached to bones by tendons.

The increase in muscle tension that is produced by increasing the number of active motor units is called

recruitment

The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers do not shorten is called

isometric.

A weight-lifter strains to lift a heavy weight and there is no movement of the person's arms holding on to the weight. This type of contraction is called a/an ________ contraction.

isometric

Suppose that you try to pick up an object and discover that it is much heavier than you expected. Which process must occur in the muscle to increase tension so you can pick up the object?

recruitment

In which of the following would the motor units have the fewest muscle fibers?

muscles that control the eyes

In an isotonic contraction,

muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle lifts the load.

During the Cori cycle, in the liver

glucose is produced from lactic acid.

During the recovery period the body's need for oxygen is increased because

additional oxygen is required to restore energy reserves consumed during exercise.

A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by

aerobic metabolism of fatty acids.

Creatine phosphate

acts as an energy reserve in muscle tissue.

During anaerobic glycolysis

ATP is produced.; pyruvic acid is produced. oxygen is not consumed.; carbohydrate is metabolized

Aerobic metabolism normally provides ________ percent of the ATP demands of a resting muscle cell.

95

After heavy exercise, if energy reserves in a muscle are depleted, ________ occurs.

an oxygen debt

During the recovery period following exercise, all of the following are true, except

muscle fibers are unable to contract.

At peak levels of muscle exertion the mitochondria can supply

only about one-third of the energy required by the muscle.

Which of the following hormones directly stimulates growth of muscle tissue, leading to increased muscle mass?

testosterone

Which of these would lead to increased oxygen consumption?

increased heat production; increased conversion of lactic acid to glucose; increased aerobic respiration by muscle cells; increased muscle activity

Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have

many mitochondria and a rich blood supply.

Decreased blood flow to a muscle could result in all of the following, except

an increase in intracellular glycogen.

How would an elevated level of thyroid hormone in the body affect skeletal muscles?

It would stimulate energy use and heat production.

Heat energy produced from muscle contraction is released by the ________ system.

integumentary

The type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is the ________ fiber.

slow

Fast fibers

have low resistance to fatigue and have quick twitches.

Muscles that move the eyeball have

fast fibers.

During activities requiring aerobic endurance

most of the muscle's energy is produced in mitochondria.

Fast muscle fibers can adapt to aerobic metabolism by generating more mitochondria in response to

repeated, exhaustive stimulation

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding human muscles?

A) Most have both slow and fast fibers.
B) Slow fibers are abundant in the calf muscles.
C) Eye muscles are composed entirely of fast fibers.
D) Slow fibers are abundant in the back muscles.

When comparing slow muscle fibers to fast muscle fibers, slow fibers

take about three times as long to reach peak tension.
B) have much smaller fiber diameters.
C) generate much less tension.
D) are rich in the red protein myoglobin.

Large-diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria are characteristics of

fast fibers.

Which type of muscle fibers are best adapted for prolonged contraction such as standing all day?

slow fibers

Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by

varying the frequency of action potentials in motor neurons.
B) recruiting larger motor units.
C) recruiting more motor units.
D) involving more muscle fibers in the contraction.

Which of the following statements is false?

Cardiac muscle stimulation is neural.

The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called

plasticity.

Which of the following is not characteristic of smooth muscle?

Smooth muscle connective tissue forms tendons and aponeuroses.

Which of the following is not a function of smooth muscle tissue?

forcing blood from the heart into the major arteries

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