pathophysiology glossary

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pathology

the study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death

Pathophysiology

The study of how disease affects body function

Health

Having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions

Disease

Being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions

Etiology

The study of the cause of a disease

Genetic

A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene.

Congenital

A disease, condition, or trait that is present at birth

Acquired

A disease, condition, or trait that developed because of being exposed to something during your life.

Idiopathic

Without a clearly identified cause.

Signs

Evidence of a disease that is objective and can be seen, measured, and recorded.

Symptoms

Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured, or recorded.

Pathogenesis

The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses.

Acute

A disease that develops and resolve rapidly.

Chronic

A disease that develops gradually and last 3 months or longer

Remission

The lessening in severity of the symptoms of disease.

Exacerbation

An increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms.

Local

A condition that is confined to one area.

Systemic

A condition that affects the entire body.

Endoscopy

A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body.

Radiodensity

The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation.

x-rays

A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures.

Contrast x-rays

x-rays that utilize a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids within the body, producing an image of the structures containing the fluid.

Ultrasound

A visual recording of differences in the rate of return & intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects within the body.

Electrocardiograms

A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system.

Electroencephalogram

A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often recording the cerebral cortex.

Spirometry

Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities of the respiratory system. Often referred to as PFT (Pulmonary function tests)

Chemotherapy

The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body. Two main types of chemotherapy are used=to kill cancer cells or microorganisms.

Pharmacological

The use of drugs to treat disease.

Palliative

Any form of treatment that relieves signs & symptoms without curing a disease. May include the use of medication (*such as decongestant or pain reliever), therapeutic massage, counseling, physical therapy, othotic devices.

Prognosis

A prediction of the likely outcome or consequences of having a disease.

Sequela

A consequence of a previous disease. (Example: Rheumatic heart disease sometimes occurs following a strep infection)

Complications

A morbid process or event ocurring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it amy result from it. (Example: Blindness is a complicaiton often associated with diabetes)

Terminal

Aisease likely to cause death.

Trauma

The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy may be mechanical, electical, radiation, or thermal

Deficiency

Lacking in something that is essentil. (Vitamin, glucose, protein, oxygen, water..)

Intoxication

Being exposed to a toxec level of something.

Hypertrophy

To increase in size

Atrophy

To decrease in size

Hyperplasia

An increase in the rate of mitosis and therefore cell number.

Metaplasia

A change in cell or tissue structure.

Dysplasia

Irregular cell or tissue structure. Often condsidered a potentially cancerous change.

Neoplasia

Growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. May be benign or maligment.

Inflammation

A protective response of tissue to injury or infection. Causes an increase in blood flow and pain in the affected region, as well as leukocytosis.

Pyrogens

Chemicals that cause a fever

Leukocytosis

An increase in the number of white blood cells to more than 10,000 per mm3. A WBC count of 15,000 -25,000 commonly occurs as a result of infection, inflammation or hemorrhage.

Exudate

The excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Contains a high level of proteins and neutrophils when compared to normal tissue fluid

Serous exudates

A thin, clear, watery fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation.

Purulent exudate

A thick, creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Also called pus.

Suppurative inflammation

A response to injury or infection that leads to the production of pus.

Regeneration

Replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition.

Repair

Replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue

Adhesions

The binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue.

Keloid Scarring

The over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue hat is often tender or painful.

Contracture

The shortening of scar tissue over time or the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes.

Stenosis

The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine, a blood vessel, of a heart valve.

Sclerosis

The process of hardening. Can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaques.

Necrosis

Tissue death

Prodromal stage

An early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetite an lack of energy. The time when a person feels as if they are "Coming down with something."

anaphylaxis

A severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstriction (resulting in severe difficulty in breathing).

Immunosurveillance

The immune system's constant search for an antigen

immunotolerance

The immune system's ability to recognize and not attack normally occurring tissues with the body.

incubation

The development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body unil the appearance of the first clinical signs and symptoms.

Acute stage

The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms egin to develop.

Benign

a nonmalignant neoplasm

Malignant

A cancerous neoplasm.

Angiogenesis

The development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries.

Tumor markers

Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person's blood.

Carcinoma

A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues.

Sarcoma

A mmalignancy that originates in connective tissues.

Glioma

A malignancy that originates within the tissue of the central nervous system.

Carcinogenesis

The process of developing a malignant neoplasm.

Initiators

Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogenes.

Promoters

Carcinogens that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes.

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