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ecology

the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

Abiotic factors

consists of nonliving chemical and physical factors

Biotic factors

consists of living factors- all the other organisms that are part of an individual's environment

organismal ecology

the study of evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments

population

a group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area

population ecology

the study of how members of a population interact with their environment, focusing on factors that influence population density and growth

community

consists of all the organisms that inhabit a particular area

community ecology

the study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization

ecosystem

all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving factors with which they interact

ecosystem ecology

the study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem

bioshpere

the global ecosystem; that portion of each that is alive

habitats

specific environments in which organisms live

abiotic factors of the biosphere

water, sunlight, temperature, wind, rocks and soil, periodic disturbances, and physiological responses

acclimation

physiological response that is longer term, though still reversible

population density

the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume

mark-recapture method

a sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations

dispersion pattern

the way individuals are spaced within the population's geographic range

clumping

due to unequal distribution of resources

uniform

results from interactions among the individuals of a population

random dispersion

individuals in a population are spaced in a patternless, unpredictable way

growth rate

the change in population size per time interval

exponential growth model

the whole population multiplies by a constant factor during constant time intervals

population-limiting factors

environmental factors that restrict population growth

logistic growth model

a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors

carrying capacity

the number of individuals in a population that the environment can just maintain with no net increase or decrease

intraspecific competition

competition between individuals of the same species for a limited resource

density-dependent factor

a population-limiting factor whose effects intensity as the population increases in density

age structure

the proportion of individuals in different age-groups

life history

the series of events from birth through reproduction and death

life table

tracks survivorship and mortality in population

survivorship curve

a plot of people still alive at each age

Type I

flat, steady, drops steeply in old age death

Type II

mortality constant over life span

Type III

indicates high death rates for the very young and then a period when death rates are very low for survivors of a certain age

opportunistic life history

the pattern of reproducing when young and producing many offspring

equilibrial life history

generally results in a type I survivorship curve; mature later and produce few offspring but care for their young

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