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Chapter 6

cephal/o

brain

ankyl/o

crooked or stiff

arthr/o, articul/o

joint (articulation)

brachi/o

arm

cervic/o

neck

chondr/o

cartilage

cost/o

rib

crani/o

skull

dactyl/o

digit (finger or toe)

fasci/o

fascia (a band)

femor/o

femur

fibr/o

fiber

kyph/o

humpback

lei/o

smooth

lord/o

bent

lumb/o

loin (lower back)

myel/o

bone marrow or spinal cord

my/o, myos/o, muscul/o

muscle

oste/o

bone

patell/o

knee cap

pelv/o, pelv/i

hip bone or pelvic cavity

radi/o

radius

rhabd/o

rod shaped or striated

sarc/o

flesh

scoli/o

twisted

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

vertebra

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon (to stretch) a band of fibrous tissue

thorac/o

chest

ton/o

tone or tension

uln/o

ulna

hinge

articulate

appendicular skeleton

bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities

axial skeleton

bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone

bone

specialized connective tissue composed of Osteocytes (bone cells) forming the skeleton

bone marrow

soft connective tissue within the bones

red bone marrow

found in infants

yellow bone marrow

replaces red bone marrow in adults

articulation

a joint; the point where two bones come together

bursa

fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones

disk (disc)

a flat, plate between the vertebrae to reduce friction

nucleus pulposus

soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disc

ligament

a flexible band of fibrous tissue

synovial membrane

membrane lining the capsule of a joint

synovial fluid

lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane

muscle

tissue composed of fibers that can contract

striated muscle

voluntary striated muscle attached to the skeleton

smooth muscle

involuntary muscle found in internal organs

cardiac muscle

muscle of the heart

origin of a muscle

muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts

insertion of a muscle

muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts

fascia

a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle

coronal plane

vertical division of the body into anterior and posterior portions

sagittal plane

vertical division of the body into right and left portions

transverse plane

horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions

anterior (A) , ventral

front of the body

posterior (P), dorsal

back of body

anterior-posterior (AP)

from front to back

posterior-anterior (PA)

from back to front

superior, cephalic

toward the head

inferior, caudal

away from the head

proximal

toward the beginning or origin of a structure

distal

away from the beginning

medial

midline- toward the middle

lateral

toward the side

axis

line that runs through the center

erect

normal standing position

decubitus

lying down, especially in bed

prone

lying face downward

recumbent

lying down

supine

flat on the back

flexion

bending at the joint

extension

straightening of a joint

abduction

move away from the body

adduction

move toward the body

rotation

circular movement

supination

turning upward or forward the palmer or plantar surface

pronation

turning downward or backward the palmar or plantar surface

dorsiflexion

bending of the foot or toes upward

planter flexion

curling the toes toward the ground

range of motion (ROM)

total motion possible in a joint

arthralgia

joint pain

atrophy

shrinking of muscle tissue

flaccid

flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone

hypertrophy

increase in the size of tissue such as muscle

hypotonia

reduced muscle tone or tension

hypertonia

increased muscle tone

myalgia, myodynia

muscle pain

ostealgia, osteodynia

bone pain

rigor, rigidity

stiffness

spasm

drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle

spastic

uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements

tetany

tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction

tremor

shaking

ankylosis

stiff joint condition

arthritis

inflammation of the joints

osteoarthritis (OA)

most common form of arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints; characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

most crippling chronic, systemic inflammation

gouty arthritis

acute attacks in a single joint

bony necrosis sequestrum

dead bone tissue

bunion

swelling of the joint at the base of the toe

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

carpal tunnel syndrome

compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel at the wrist

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

fracture (Fx)

broken or cracked bone

simple fracture

nondisplaced fracture involving one fracture line

complex fracture

a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair

compound (open) fracture

broken bone with an open wound

comminuted fracture

broken in many little pieces

herniated disk

protrusion of intervertebral disk causing compression on the nerve

myoma

muscle tumor

osteomalacia

disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium/ vit. D deficiency

rickets

osteomalacia in children

osteomyelitis

infection of bone marrow causing inflammation

osteoporosis

decreased bone density

kyphosis

humback- abnormal posterior curvature

lordosis

sway back- abnormal anterior curvature

scoliosis

S shape- abnormal lateral curvature

sprain

injury to a ligament

bone scan

radionuclide image of bone tissue

computed tomography (CT)

x-ray producing a series of cross-sectional images

amputation

partial or complete removal of a limb

arthrocentesis

puncture for aspiration of a joint

arthrodesis

binding or fusing of joint surfaces

arthroplasty

repair or reconstruct a joint

arthroscopy

procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within

bone grafting

transplant of a piece of bone from one site to another

bursectomy

excision of a bursa

myoplasty

repair of muscle

open reduction, internal fixation of a fracture (ORIF)

internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment

osteoplasty

repair of bone

closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture

external manipulation of a fracture with an external device,

casting

stiff solid dressing around a limb

splinting

use of a rigid device to immobilize a broken bone

traction (Tx)

application of a pulling force to a fractured bone

closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture

external manipulation - insertion of pins through skin

OA

osteoarthritis

ORIF

open reduction internal fixation

PT

physical therapy

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

ROM

range of motion

cervical

neck region (C1 to C7)

thoracic

chest region (T1 to T12)

lumbar

lower back region (L1-L5)

frontal bone

forehead

maxilla bone

upper jaw

mandible

lower jaw

coronal suture

across the top of the skull

pariental bone

middle back of skull

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