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Reed weatherford college

Social control

attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior

Stanley Milgram study

'teacher' asked the question, 'student' was shocked when he got it wrong. the experimenter told the teacher to continue shocking the student even after he had completely stopped responding. 2/3 of the subjects obeyed, although they tried to quit. his predictions were totally off, but concluded that people can be coerced into doing things they wouldn't normally

deviance

behavior that departs from societal or group norms

stigma

an undesirable characteristic or label used to others to deny the deviant full social acceptance

anomie theory

The view that anomie results when socially defined goals (such as wealth and power) are universally mandated but access to legitimate means (such as education and job opportunities) is stratified by class and status.

labeling theory

emphasizes how a person comes to be labeled as deviant or to accept the label

cultural transmission theory

Deviance is part of a subculture; it is transmitted through socialization

William Chambliss study

study of two gangs based on age

Relative poverty

a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location

Absolute poverty

the absence of enough money to secure life's necessities

Sociological perspectives

There are three major sociological perspectives. The structural-functionalist perspective focuses on the way various parts of society are structured and interrrelated to maintain stability and order. The conflict perspective emphasizes how the various elements of society promote inequality and conflict among groups of people. Symbolic interactionism seeks to understand society and social structure through the interactions of people and the ways in which they subjectively define their worlds.

Conspicuous leisure

the demonstration of one's high social status through forms of leisure.

False consciousness

Acceptance of a system that works against one's own interests

Stratification

the act or process or arranging persons into classes or social strata

Social mobility

movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another

World systems analysis

a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited

Globalization

the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade

Feminization of poverty

the trend toward more and more of the poor in the US being women and children

Life chances

the likelihood of securing the "good things in life" such as housing, education, good health, and food

Colonialism

exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one

Modernization

the great number of social changes accompanying economic development

Developing

relating to societies in which capital needed to industrialize is in short supply

Multinational corporations

firms in highly industrialized societies with operating facilities throughout the world

NAFTA

A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.

Ethic group

is a social category of people who share a common culture

Racial group

a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance

Cultural universals

general cultural traits thought to exist in all known cultures

Cultural relativism

the practice of judging a culture by its own standards

Ethnic cleansing

the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area

Assimilation

the integration of a social or ethnic minority into a society

Human rights

the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings

Remittances

money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries

Ethnocentrism

the tendency to judge others in relation to one's own cultural standards

Prejudice

widely held preconceptions of a group (minority or majority) and its individual members

Discrimination

unequal treatment of individual based on their minority membership

Pluralism

based on the mutual respect between various cultural groups within a society

Stereotype

a generalized belief about a group of people

Minority group

a category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics

Institutional discrimination

discrimination that results from unfair practices that are part of the structure of society and have grown out of traditionally accepted behaviors

Glass ceiling

the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations

Segregation

separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

Gender roles

culturally based expectations associated with each sex

Gender schema

a set of behaviors organized around how either a male or female should think and behave

Sexual harassment

the use of one's superior power in making unwelcome sexual advances

Sexism

a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality

Sex stratification

a process by which society creates unequal access to recourses based solely on the fact that people are either male or female. The basis for this inequality must strictly be the fact that the person is either male or female.

Gender identity

an awareness of being masculine or feminine based on culture

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