Learners of English as a foreign Language - Norm-dependent
In the Three-Circle Model of the spread of English the Expanding Circle refers to...
high levels of proficiency regardless of where one was born and how one learned the language
The concept of functional nativeness in English refers to...
Native speakers (US, OZ, UK etc.)
What's the inner circle of English?
People speaking English as a second language (India, Singapore, Nigeria etc.)
What's the outer circle of English?
English as a Native Language
English as a Second Language
English as a Foreign Language/Lingua Franca
Probably an old colony, has official status or function, multilingual context.
What does it mean when English is spoken as a second language in a country?
about 350 million of each
How many ESL and ENL speakers are there?
How many EFL speakers are there?
When did English begin its geographical expansion?
Migration from UK to US, SA, Australia and NZ.
What was the first dispersal of English?
Colonisation of Asia and Africa leading to second language-varieties
What was the second dispersal of English?
Population size greatly increased => growing sense of seperate identity. Independence from Britain => greater linguistic differences.
What major changes did the English-speaking settlements of the diasporas undergo between 1750-1900?
The outer circle
Which of the "circles" of English is seen as "norm-developing"?
The expanding circle
Which of the "circles" of English is seen as "norm-dependent"?
Gray areas between the circles, implies uniformity, implies central role of natives, does not define proficiency
What are the limitations of the circle model?
Because it is dependent on the situation and the function
Why is it difficult to define language proficiency?
Selection, Codification, Elaboration of function, Acceptance
What are the stages of standardization?
Grammar, vocabulary and orthography used by educated speakers. The most widely understood and promoted variety.
What is Standard English?
Accent, style, register, geography
What does Standard English NOT refer to?
Spelling, lexis (new words)
What is Standard English norms rigid about, and what "softer" about?
ESL varieties that have become indigenized - have new features of their own, some have gone through standardisation and are increasingly being spoken as a mother tongue
What are the "New Englishes"?
Whether language use differing from the standard is seen as an error or not
What is the difference between the deficit perspective and the difference perspective?
Because different setting and function leads to variation in form
Why has English been diversified so much?
When it develops a special role that is recognized in every country
What gives a language a genuinely global status?
Military power might establish a language, but what maintains and expands it?
Cross-border activities, creation of transnational spaces, interdependence of societies and economies, compression of time and space
What are some of the characteristics of globalization?
Transportation, satelite technologies, communication technologies
How has technology influenced globalization?
No, because translation has limits (costs, availability)
Does translation take away the need for a lingua franca? Why/why not?
English language growing increasingly independent of Anglo-American origins
What made it possible for Globish to develop?
1500 word vocabulary, reduced grammar, correct spelling, correct pronunciation, accent irrelevant, neutral
What are some features of Globish?
How much of the online content was in English in the late 90s? How much today?
Arabic, Russian, Chinese
What three languages show the larges increase in internet usage in the last decade?
Using English in addition to the native language
What does "pair-language" refer to?
Resistance - protection of local language and culture. Intelligibility.
What are possible problems with ads in English?
Given one slogan in the local language and one difficult-to-understand slogan in English, which one is generally preferred?
One of several working/official languages in many international organizations like UN, Red cross, FIFA
What is the role of French in diplomacy today?
Imbalance towards English, internet content not provided in all six languages. A cost problem.
What can you say about linguistic balance in the UN?
How many official languages does the EU have?
UN works intergovernmentally, EU has direct involvement of citizens
What's the reason for the differences in linguistic diversity between the UN and the EU?
English varieties with standardised vocabulary for maximum clarity. Only includes accepted conventions, short messages, checkbacks and confirmations
What's airspeak and seaspeak?
English for specific purposes: relating to a specific field such as business, technology and science. No line between ESP and general English.
Before only children, now lifelong learning. New skills. Learning how to learn.
How has the attitude towards education shifted in recent times?
Start earlier = younger learners, adult teaching growing industry = older learners.
How is the English learning part of the population today different from how it was 10-20 years ago?
Unis traditionally national, now compete globally. UK and US academic superpowers
How has globalisation changed higher education?
cooperation, exchange, gaining globl recognition, greater exposure and availability, no need for translation
What are the advantages of EALF (English as an Academic Lingua Franca)?
Cultural hegemony, native speaker advantage, neglect of local research
What are the downsides of EALF?
Proofreaders, translators, native-speaker friends etc.
Who are the "brokers" of published academic texts?
National native varieties - AE or BE
What varities of English are accepted at international universities?
Not possible to define worldwide variety, not what learners want, lack of intelligibility
Mention some disadvantages of ELF.
NUmber of speakers, proportion within population, intergenerational transmission, native attitudes, domains and media, gov attitudes, documentation and materials
What are UNESCOS main criteria for defining language vitality/endangerment?
How big a percentage of the world population speak 4 % of the world's languages?
No one factor, but: physical danger of population, cultural assimilation, spread of English
Why do languages die?
Standard L1, non-standard L1, standard L2, non-standard L2
How's the traditional hierarchy of Englished built up?
Standard international English, standard local English, non-standard English
WHat's the reconceptualized hierarchy of Englishes like?