Final - Introduction of Respiratory Therapy

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What is the primary source of infection in the health care setting?

Humans

What term describes the power potential behind electrical energy?

Voltage

List "intentional torts" in medical law.

Assault and Battery, Defamation, Invasion of Privacy

In electrically susceptible patients, ventricular fibrillation can occur with electrical currents as low as _____________.

100 uA

Why were respiratory protocols developed and are currently being used in hospitals throughout North America?

To enhance proper allocation of RT services

What respiratory care equipment which uses microprocessors for monitoring and control of complex data?

Mechanical Ventilators

Approximately how many people die each year in the United States from hospital-acquired infections (HAIs)?

90,000

What are the key factors in determining when a patient can be ambulated?

Stable Vital Signs, No Severe Pain

The practice of withholding the truth from a patient, saying it is for his/her own good, is termed _________________.

Benevolent Deception

Name the key factors which can have an impact on the outcomes of therapeutic communication between patient and practitioner?

Verbal and Nonverbal, Environmental, Values and Beliefs, Sensory and Emotional

What conditions are necessary to incur liability under the doctrine of respondent superior?

Negligence must be shown, and the act must be within the scope of employment

What is the most common route of pathogen transmission in the hospital setting?

Indirect Contact

To find out the amount of urine excreted by a patient in the last 24 hours, you would go to which section of the medical record?

Intake and Output Sheet

Name the key ways in which Respiratory care plans can be monitored.

Experienced Care Plan Auditors, Case Studies, Patient Scenarios, and Comparison of assessment with Department Gold Standard

When SIMV was first introduced? How is SIMV an important improvement over IMV?

1975

What legal doctrine holds superiors responsible for the actions of their workers?

Respondent Superior

Be sure to study which medications can be effectively nebulized and which ones cannot be effectively nebulized.

Bronchodilators, Mucolytics, Antibiotics, Steriods all can be nebulized, -inotropic meds cannot be nebulized

Information regarding the patient's nearest kin, physician, and initial diagnosis can be found in which section of the medical record?

Admission Sheet

What have been the key factors in increasing the cost of health care?

Compensatory Justice, Technology, Wage Rates for workers, and many other factors.

What key factors are necessary to validate a claim of professional negligence?

The practitioner owed a duty to the patient. The practitioner was derelict with that duty. The breach of duty was the direct cause of damages. Damage or harm came to the patient.

Discuss how the education of respiratory therapists expected to change over the next decade?

Requirements are expected to increase!

What is the first step in equipment processing for reuse on another patient?

Cleaning the Equipment

Name the database often purchased and used by hospitals and libraries to provide key research information on medical topics?

OVID

An RCP who engages in a questionable business practice is committing what type of malpractice?

Ethical

When was the first Ventimask introduced? How does the Ventimask work?
What range of FIO2 is available with it?

1960, Air Entrainment, 24-40%

Which two names are linked with the development of the iron lung? What disease was it used extensively to treat in the 1950s?

Drinker and Emerson. Polio epidemics.

Respiratory care education programs are reviewed by which organization to ensure quality?

Committee on Accreditation for Respiratory Care

Name the software which monitors the computer use of individuals and reports the results to a central database?

Spyware

Under what conditions can the principle of confidentiality be breached?

When the welfare of the community or a vulnerable individual is at stake

Who is credited with starting the Internet?

The US Department of Defense

What are the uses of phenolics as a disinfectant?

Bacteriocidal, Fungicidal

What program offers access to medically underserved communities through the use of telephones and computer-based education?

Telemedicine

Nonverbal communication includes which components?

Gesture, Touch, Space are all examples

Describe the correct way to sign a medical record entry once you are certified and licensed?

Your Name, LRCP, CRT

Who is credited with first describing the law of partial pressures for a gas mixture?

John Dalton

What are some good ways to communicating empathy to your patients?

Touch, Key Words and Eye Contact are all examples

What was the first primary duty of inhalation therapists?

Support Oxygen Therapy

Name several advantages which have been shown for respiratory care protocols?

They decrease over ordering of RT services, decrease total cost, and they assure that patients receive the most appropriate therapy.

Computers are often used to interpret what kinds of tests in RT?

Pulmonary Function Tests

Name the key factor(s) for determining the extent of harm caused by an electrical current?

Duration, Path and Amount of Current

To confirm a physician's prescription for a medication, you would go to which section of the medical record?

Physician Orders

What is a time-based record of measurement during a specialized procedure such as mechanical ventilation?

Specialized Flowsheet

What do the letters in "RACE" mean for hospital fire safety?

Rescue, Alarm, Contain and Extinguish or Escape

Who was the first to develop the large-scale production of oxygen in 1907?

Karl von Linde

What are the primary characteristics for iodophors as disinfectants?

water soluble, nonstaining, less irritating than other disinfectants

What is the most common, efficient, and easiest sterilization method?

Steam Sterilization

When a pulmonary specialist has been called in to help make a diagnosis, you will find his/her report in what section of the medical record?

Consultation Sheet

How often does the performance capacity of computers double?

Every 18 months

Which ethical principle obliges a respiratory therapist to uphold a patient's right to refuse a treatment?

Autonomy

In what year did the respiratory care professional organization Inhalational Therapy Association (ITA) change its name to American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)?

1982

What solution should be used to disinfect the surfaces of the room of a patient who was infected with Clostridium difficile?

5.25% sodium hypochlorite

In what area are computers used to apply quality assurance measures in respiratory care departments?

Arterial Blood Gases

What system has the federal government developed to evaluate the quality of care given to Medicare beneficiaries?

Peer Review Organizations

What are some key barriers to effective interpersonal communication?

Use of symbols or words with different meanings, value systems which are not accepted, feelings of personal insecurity

When a respiratory therapist defers a patient's questions about a condition to the attending physician, what ethical principle is being practiced?

Role Fidelity

Quality in the practice of respiratory care encompasses which components?

Personnel, Equipment, Methods, Experience Levels

Name the type of examinations which enable respiratory therapists to become licensed in most states?

NBRC Examinations

What commonly used software program is useful as a database management system?

Access

The challenging debate over prolonging life versus relief of suffering in elderly patients mainly involves what ethical principle?

Beneficence

What are the primary guiding principles in contemporary ethical decision-making?

Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, Justice, Role Fidelity

When a practitioner performs a procedure that involves physical contact without the patient's consent, it can result in a charge of ____________.

Battery

What are some of the key growth trends in respiratory care for the future?

Protocols, Patient Assessment, Smoking Cessation are examples

What are some key components of hospital restructuring and redesign?

Cross training, Downsizing, Deploying staff to nursing units, Training multi-skilled personnel

What actions should you take before making any ethical decision?

Identify persons involved, Identify ethical principles, Identify decision maker, Consider alternatives

Treatment based on careful review of available literature is known as _____________________________.

Evidence-Based Medicine

"Expanded Precautions" include what?

Contact, Droplet and Airborne are all examples

Which organisms have been associated with using a poorly disinfected bronchoscope?

M. tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

The common elements in a professional practice act include what?

Score of Practice, Licensure Requirements, Penalties and Sanctions

What techniques are used by most hospitals to reduce host susceptibility to infection?

Immunization and Chemoprophylaxis are keys here

What ethical principle justifies the pain which might occur in drawing blood from a patient for a diagnostic test?

Double effect

What are recommended components of an infection control program in the hospital?

Surveillance, Investigation, Reporting

What tasks are performed by clinical decision support systems?

Matching patients with drug doses, Provide standing orders, Remind patients to reorder meds are all examples

What individual is considered to be the "father of medicine"?

Hippocrates

What are key considerations in the use of glutaraldehyde?

It is a true sterilizing agent, is not used for surface disinfection, and can cause tissue inflammation in workers who use it

What is the role of the NBRC?

responsible for ensuring quality in respiratory care through voluntary certification and registration

What is the role of CoARC?

Accreditation of Respiratory Care programs

What is the role of The Joint Commission (JCAHO)?

Accreditation of hospitals and RT Departments

What is the role of AARC?

Professional Association for RT's and provides continuing education and advocacy

The majority of respiratory care education programs in the United States offer what degree?

Associate Degree

If you make a mistake when charting a patient treatment, what specifically should you do?

Draw a line through the mistake, and write "error" above it, then date and initial.

For the CRT credential, what does the letter "T" stand for?

Therapist

What is the most essential aspect of providing quality respiratory care?

Care being provided is indicated.
Care is delivered competently and appropriately.

A physician who participates in active euthanasia is committing what type of malpractice?

criminal

Which of the following is a key element of a respiratory care protocol program?

Strong and committed medical direction
Collaborative environment among health care providers
Responsiveness to address and correct problems
Capable therapists

In 1662, a chemist published a book that described the relationship between gas, volume, and pressure. What was the chemist's name?

Robert Boyle

The responsibilities of a respiratory care department manager include all of the following except.

Regulate medications delivered by respiratory care staff.

What term is used to describe the work done by a researcher who reviews numerous studies on a single topic and gives more weight to the more rigorous ones before making recommendations?

Meta-analysis

Current JCAHO standards for accreditation emphasize which of the following?

Continual quality improvement.

When was positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) first introduced to treat patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome?

1967

Divisions of public law (the relationships of private parties and the government) include:

Administrative and criminal

What term is used in current health care that refers to an organized strategy of delivering care to a large group of individuals?

Disease management

Who introduced the first laryngoscope, in 1913?

Chevalier Jackson

A clinician who justifies not billing a poor patient for services rendered because "that's what a professional should do" is applying what ethical viewpoint

Virtue ethics

How do endotracheal tubes increase the risk of infection?

Impeding local host defenses.
Providing surfaces for biofilms to develop.

All of the following factors increase the risk of surgical patients for developing postoperative pneumonia

Obesity
Prolonged intubation
History of smoking

Contemporary ethical principles have evolved from all of the following sources except:

psychoanalysis (Freud).

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