What is the primary source of infection in the health care setting?
What term describes the power potential behind electrical energy?
List "intentional torts" in medical law.
Assault and Battery, Defamation, Invasion of Privacy
In electrically susceptible patients, ventricular fibrillation can occur with electrical currents as low as _____________.
Why were respiratory protocols developed and are currently being used in hospitals throughout North America?
To enhance proper allocation of RT services
What respiratory care equipment which uses microprocessors for monitoring and control of complex data?
Approximately how many people die each year in the United States from hospital-acquired infections (HAIs)?
What are the key factors in determining when a patient can be ambulated?
Stable Vital Signs, No Severe Pain
The practice of withholding the truth from a patient, saying it is for his/her own good, is termed _________________.
Name the key factors which can have an impact on the outcomes of therapeutic communication between patient and practitioner?
Verbal and Nonverbal, Environmental, Values and Beliefs, Sensory and Emotional
What conditions are necessary to incur liability under the doctrine of respondent superior?
Negligence must be shown, and the act must be within the scope of employment
What is the most common route of pathogen transmission in the hospital setting?
To find out the amount of urine excreted by a patient in the last 24 hours, you would go to which section of the medical record?
Intake and Output Sheet
Name the key ways in which Respiratory care plans can be monitored.
Experienced Care Plan Auditors, Case Studies, Patient Scenarios, and Comparison of assessment with Department Gold Standard
When SIMV was first introduced? How is SIMV an important improvement over IMV?
What legal doctrine holds superiors responsible for the actions of their workers?
Be sure to study which medications can be effectively nebulized and which ones cannot be effectively nebulized.
Bronchodilators, Mucolytics, Antibiotics, Steriods all can be nebulized, -inotropic meds cannot be nebulized
Information regarding the patient's nearest kin, physician, and initial diagnosis can be found in which section of the medical record?
What have been the key factors in increasing the cost of health care?
Compensatory Justice, Technology, Wage Rates for workers, and many other factors.
What key factors are necessary to validate a claim of professional negligence?
The practitioner owed a duty to the patient. The practitioner was derelict with that duty. The breach of duty was the direct cause of damages. Damage or harm came to the patient.
Discuss how the education of respiratory therapists expected to change over the next decade?
Requirements are expected to increase!
What is the first step in equipment processing for reuse on another patient?
Cleaning the Equipment
Name the database often purchased and used by hospitals and libraries to provide key research information on medical topics?
An RCP who engages in a questionable business practice is committing what type of malpractice?
When was the first Ventimask introduced? How does the Ventimask work?
What range of FIO2 is available with it?
1960, Air Entrainment, 24-40%
Which two names are linked with the development of the iron lung? What disease was it used extensively to treat in the 1950s?
Drinker and Emerson. Polio epidemics.
Respiratory care education programs are reviewed by which organization to ensure quality?
Committee on Accreditation for Respiratory Care
Name the software which monitors the computer use of individuals and reports the results to a central database?
Under what conditions can the principle of confidentiality be breached?
When the welfare of the community or a vulnerable individual is at stake
Who is credited with starting the Internet?
The US Department of Defense
What are the uses of phenolics as a disinfectant?
What program offers access to medically underserved communities through the use of telephones and computer-based education?
Nonverbal communication includes which components?
Gesture, Touch, Space are all examples
Describe the correct way to sign a medical record entry once you are certified and licensed?
Your Name, LRCP, CRT
Who is credited with first describing the law of partial pressures for a gas mixture?
What are some good ways to communicating empathy to your patients?
Touch, Key Words and Eye Contact are all examples
What was the first primary duty of inhalation therapists?
Support Oxygen Therapy
Name several advantages which have been shown for respiratory care protocols?
They decrease over ordering of RT services, decrease total cost, and they assure that patients receive the most appropriate therapy.
Computers are often used to interpret what kinds of tests in RT?
Pulmonary Function Tests
Name the key factor(s) for determining the extent of harm caused by an electrical current?
Duration, Path and Amount of Current
To confirm a physician's prescription for a medication, you would go to which section of the medical record?
What is a time-based record of measurement during a specialized procedure such as mechanical ventilation?
What do the letters in "RACE" mean for hospital fire safety?
Rescue, Alarm, Contain and Extinguish or Escape
Who was the first to develop the large-scale production of oxygen in 1907?
Karl von Linde
What are the primary characteristics for iodophors as disinfectants?
water soluble, nonstaining, less irritating than other disinfectants
What is the most common, efficient, and easiest sterilization method?
When a pulmonary specialist has been called in to help make a diagnosis, you will find his/her report in what section of the medical record?
How often does the performance capacity of computers double?
Every 18 months
Which ethical principle obliges a respiratory therapist to uphold a patient's right to refuse a treatment?
In what year did the respiratory care professional organization Inhalational Therapy Association (ITA) change its name to American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)?
What solution should be used to disinfect the surfaces of the room of a patient who was infected with Clostridium difficile?
5.25% sodium hypochlorite
In what area are computers used to apply quality assurance measures in respiratory care departments?
Arterial Blood Gases
What system has the federal government developed to evaluate the quality of care given to Medicare beneficiaries?
Peer Review Organizations
What are some key barriers to effective interpersonal communication?
Use of symbols or words with different meanings, value systems which are not accepted, feelings of personal insecurity
When a respiratory therapist defers a patient's questions about a condition to the attending physician, what ethical principle is being practiced?
Quality in the practice of respiratory care encompasses which components?
Personnel, Equipment, Methods, Experience Levels
Name the type of examinations which enable respiratory therapists to become licensed in most states?
What commonly used software program is useful as a database management system?
The challenging debate over prolonging life versus relief of suffering in elderly patients mainly involves what ethical principle?
What are the primary guiding principles in contemporary ethical decision-making?
Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, Justice, Role Fidelity
When a practitioner performs a procedure that involves physical contact without the patient's consent, it can result in a charge of ____________.
What are some of the key growth trends in respiratory care for the future?
Protocols, Patient Assessment, Smoking Cessation are examples
What are some key components of hospital restructuring and redesign?
Cross training, Downsizing, Deploying staff to nursing units, Training multi-skilled personnel
What actions should you take before making any ethical decision?
Identify persons involved, Identify ethical principles, Identify decision maker, Consider alternatives
Treatment based on careful review of available literature is known as _____________________________.
"Expanded Precautions" include what?
Contact, Droplet and Airborne are all examples
Which organisms have been associated with using a poorly disinfected bronchoscope?
M. tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The common elements in a professional practice act include what?
Score of Practice, Licensure Requirements, Penalties and Sanctions
What techniques are used by most hospitals to reduce host susceptibility to infection?
Immunization and Chemoprophylaxis are keys here
What ethical principle justifies the pain which might occur in drawing blood from a patient for a diagnostic test?
What are recommended components of an infection control program in the hospital?
Surveillance, Investigation, Reporting
What tasks are performed by clinical decision support systems?
Matching patients with drug doses, Provide standing orders, Remind patients to reorder meds are all examples
What individual is considered to be the "father of medicine"?
What are key considerations in the use of glutaraldehyde?
It is a true sterilizing agent, is not used for surface disinfection, and can cause tissue inflammation in workers who use it
What is the role of the NBRC?
responsible for ensuring quality in respiratory care through voluntary certification and registration
What is the role of CoARC?
Accreditation of Respiratory Care programs
What is the role of The Joint Commission (JCAHO)?
Accreditation of hospitals and RT Departments
What is the role of AARC?
Professional Association for RT's and provides continuing education and advocacy
The majority of respiratory care education programs in the United States offer what degree?
If you make a mistake when charting a patient treatment, what specifically should you do?
Draw a line through the mistake, and write "error" above it, then date and initial.
For the CRT credential, what does the letter "T" stand for?
What is the most essential aspect of providing quality respiratory care?
Care being provided is indicated.
Care is delivered competently and appropriately.
A physician who participates in active euthanasia is committing what type of malpractice?
Which of the following is a key element of a respiratory care protocol program?
Strong and committed medical direction
Collaborative environment among health care providers
Responsiveness to address and correct problems
In 1662, a chemist published a book that described the relationship between gas, volume, and pressure. What was the chemist's name?
The responsibilities of a respiratory care department manager include all of the following except.
Regulate medications delivered by respiratory care staff.
What term is used to describe the work done by a researcher who reviews numerous studies on a single topic and gives more weight to the more rigorous ones before making recommendations?
Current JCAHO standards for accreditation emphasize which of the following?
Continual quality improvement.
When was positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) first introduced to treat patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome?
Divisions of public law (the relationships of private parties and the government) include:
Administrative and criminal
What term is used in current health care that refers to an organized strategy of delivering care to a large group of individuals?
Who introduced the first laryngoscope, in 1913?
A clinician who justifies not billing a poor patient for services rendered because "that's what a professional should do" is applying what ethical viewpoint
How do endotracheal tubes increase the risk of infection?
Impeding local host defenses.
Providing surfaces for biofilms to develop.
All of the following factors increase the risk of surgical patients for developing postoperative pneumonia
History of smoking
Contemporary ethical principles have evolved from all of the following sources except: