Which of the following types of organisms uses hydrogen sulfide for reducing power?
purple sulfur bacteria
What is the key difference between photoheterotrophs and photoautotrophs?
Photoheterotrophs use organic compounds as their carbon source; photoautotrophs use carbon dioxide as their carbon source.
Which of the following is a trait unique to photosynthetic eukaryotes?
The presence of chloroplasts.
Which of the following would best inhibit the growth of a hyperthermophilic archaeon?
extremely low pH
Pyrodictium is one example of an archaeon. It lives in deep sea vents where the temperatures can be over 300°C! Which of the following best describes this archaeon?
Which of the following types of archaea is most likely to grow best at human body temperature (37°C)?
T or F: When an endospore germinates, it gives rise to two daughter cells called vegetative cells.
What bacterial structure is responsible for separating the daughter DNA molecules after replication?
The anaerobic Clostridium species are troublesome pathogens largely due to their capacity for
The archaea known as halophiles
are members of the Euryarchaeota and require salt concentrations above 9%.
T or F: Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus can invade the body and cause diseases such as pneumonia and bacteremia.
Members of which of the following genera are the most common sexually transmitted bacteria in the United States?
T or F: Most of the methane produced by methanogens is oxidized by other types of bacteria before it affects the Earth's climate.
Classification of bacteria into different phyla is based on comparisons involving which of the following?
both DNA and protein sequences
Which of the following bacterial genera includes species that protect areas of the body such as the intestinal tract and the vagina from invasion by pathogens?
Which of the following diseases is NOT associated with clostridia?
DIPHTHERIA botulism gangrene diarrhea tetanus
Which of the following bacterial genera is used for the degradation of environmental pollutants?
How do naked viruses differ from enveloped viruses in their attachment/penetration phase?
Their nucleic acids are injected into the cell.
Which of the following viruses is transcribed from RNA to DNA to RNA during the replication cycle?
Which type of virus would produce viral glycoproteins to be expressed on the host cell membrane?
The outermost layer of a virion fulfills which of the following functions of the virus?
protection and recognition
Which of the following would NOT be found as a component of a bacteriophage?
tail fibers, dna, ENVELOPE, icosahedral capsid, base plate
Which of the following statements comparing virus classification and taxonomy of organisms is true?
Genus and specific epithet are used in both classification systems.
Put the following stages of a lytic replication cycle in order, from earliest to latest stages:
III, V, I, II, IV
T or F: Bacteriophage release is a gradual process in which small numbers are released at a time.
Why is lysogeny advantageous to a bacteriophage?
the genetic material of the bacteriophage can be passed on to future generations of cells.
Which of the following agents is capable of inducing conversion of a prophage back to a lytic phage?
UV light and X rays
Which of the following events occurs in the lytic cycle of bacteriophage T4 infection but not in the lysogenic cycle?
digestion of host DNA
Which of the following types of animal virus requires RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase to be replicated?
T or F: Assembly of new viruses is a process that usually requires the direction of a variety of viral and cellular enzymes.
Which of the following is associated with the attachment of a bacteriophage to a bacterial cell?
random collisions, chemical attractions, and receptor specificity
he enzyme lysozyme is critical for which of the stages of a bacteriophage T4 infection cycle?
entry and release
Spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of ________ contact transmission.
The incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States was 12.43/100,000 cases. This means
there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the United States in the year 2000.
In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel H1N1 influenza ("swine flu") in the United States. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over 40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents a(n) ________ disease.
Which of the following is NOT considered a type of vehicle transmission of a pathogen?
VIA ANIMALS, via body fluid, via air, via food, via drinking water
In the wake of the cyclone that hit Myanmar (Southeast Asia) in 2008, there were widespread reports of typhoid fever. Which of the following was the most likely mode of transmission?
T or F: A syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs that collectively characterize a particular disease.
T or F: Koch's postulates can be applied to every infectious disease to identify its causative pathogen.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?
incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
The ________ route is not a portal route of entry of a pathogen per se, but rather a way of circumventing the usual portals.
Chagas' disease is transmitted by a bug with mouthparts that penetrate blood vessels. Which type of exposure does this represent?
Which of the following is NOT an example of a zoonosis?
TYPHOID FEVER, rabies, salmonellosis, typhus, anthrax
The condition called parasitism is characterized as
a relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.
Mutualism is a relationship
that sometimes provides benefits for both members such that one or both parties cannot live without the other.
Opportunistic microorganisms are
microorganisms that may cause a disease under certain circumstances.
T or F: Normal microbiota may cause disease if they are introduced into an unusual site in the body.
According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?
How might a patient who is not being treated with an antibiotic still be exposed to an antibiotic?
Antibiotics can be used in aerosols, thereby entering the environment.
Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?
These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.
How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?
Practice more stringent aseptic techniques
Expected prevalence of a disease is
the expected occurrence of a disease based on past observations.
In the sixth segment of the animation, why is the disease epidemic in North America?
The disease occurs at a higher rate than what would normally be expected in this region.
In the last segment of the animation, how many regions of the world experience the pandemic during April of year four?