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Professor Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. He personally disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Jones is most likely to vote in favor of their plan if

A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.
B. he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion.
C. committee voting is done by private ballot.
D. he has a high level of self-esteem.

the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.

Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.

A. deindividuation; social facilitation
B. social facilitation; deindividuation
C. informational social influence; normative social influence
D. normative social influence; informational social influence

informational social influence; normative social influence

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because

A. the "learners" made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances.
B. the "teachers" actually enjoyed shocking another person.
C. the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
D. the "learners" obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest.

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

A. people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive.
B. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
C. the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.
D. people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

On which of the following tasks would the presence of others be MOST likely to lead to improved performance?

A. reciting the months of the year in alphabetical order
B. learning foreign language words
C. counting backward from 10 to 1
D. learning nonsense syllables

counting backward from 10 to 1

Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be

A. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
B. convinced that the death penalty should be retained.
C. sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.
D. in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.

even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

In one experiment, White respondents typically took longer to identify words such as peace and paradise as "good" when the words were associated with Black-sounding names rather than White-sounding names. This best illustrated

A. the mere exposure effect.
B. the other-race effect.
C. mirror-image perceptions.
D. implicit prejudice.

implicit prejudice.

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates

A. the just-world phenomenon.
B. ingroup bias.
C. the fundamental attribution error.
D. scapegoating.

ingroup bias

The tendency to categorize people on the basis of their gender is most likely to lead Jack to believe that

A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.
B. women seem to be unpredictable, because no two are alike.
C. most men tend to be logical and emotionally controlled.
D. in contrast to women, men have very similar tastes in dress and fashion.

women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.

According to the text, aggression always involves

A. physical damage.
B. anger and hostility.
C. the intent to hurt.
D. a reaction to frustration.

the intent to hurt

Social rejection has been observed to intensify

A. self-disclosure.
B. aggression.
C. hindsight bias.
D. deindividuation.

aggression.

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates

A. the fundamental attribution error.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. mirror-image perceptions.
D. the bystander effect.

the mere exposure effect.

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of

A. passionate love.
B. social facilitation.
C. self-disclosure.
D. the mere exposure effect.

self-disclosure.

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the

A. emergency takes place in a large city.
B. observer has just endured a frustrating experience.
C. emergency is being observed by a number of other people.
D. observer has been exposed to many similar emergencies in the past.

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

After she received a free hand-painted Christmas ornament from a religious organization, Mrs. Montevecchi felt obligated to mail a cash donation to the organization. Her response to the free gift best illustrates the impact of

A. the mere exposure effect.
B. the just-world phenomenon.
C. the fundamental attribution error.
D. the reciprocity norm.

the reciprocity norm.

Despite government warnings of a severe shortage of heating fuels, most citizens continue to turn up their home thermostats in the belief that their personal fuel consumption will have little effect on the country's total fuel reserves. This reaction best illustrates the dynamics of

A. the bystander effect.
B. the fundamental attribution error.
C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
D. a social trap.

a social trap.

The function of dendrites is to

A. receive incoming signals from other neurons.
B. release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons.
C. coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D. control pain through the release of opiatelike chemicals into the brain.

receive incoming signals from other neurons.

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

A. synapse.
B. agonist.
C. action potential.
D. refractory period.

action potential.

A synapse is a(n)

A. chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions.
B. automatic response to sensory input.
C. junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
D. neural cable containing many axons.

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.

Reuptake refers to the

A. movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap.
B. release of hormones into the bloodstream.
C. inflow of myelin through an axon membrane.
D. reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.

reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to

A. Alzheimer's disease.
B. schizophrenia.
C. Parkinson's disease.
D. depression.

depression.

Endorphin agonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain.

A. decrease; increase
B. increase; decrease
C. increase; increase
D. decrease; decrease

decrease; increase

Andy was in a car accident that left him paralyzed from the waist down. The relevant damage took place in his

A. central nervous system.
B. autonomic nervous system.
C. somatic nervous system.
D. brain.

central nervous system.

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the

A. somatic nervous system.
B. sympathetic nervous system.
C. parasympathetic nervous system.
D. sensory cortex.

sympathetic nervous system.

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, __________ must first relay incoming pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord.

A. the limbic system
B. glial cells
C. motor neurons
D. sensory neurons

sensory neurons

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