how did removing certin brain tissue in cats affect muscle movements during dreming?
cats acted out their dreams
the study removing tissue from cats brain tissue showed
there is a center in the brain that keeps us from acting out our dreams
effects of sleep deprivation in humans
depends on how long deprived
one night sleep deprived
not much effects/ cranky
48 hr of sleep deprivation
irratiable and impulsive
suffer from poor judgement
bad decision making
100 hrs of sleep deprivation/ 4 full days
*ampathy- when you just dont care
after 100 hrs of sleep deprivation
begin to act mentally ill
have symptoms of parinoid schitzopherana
delusions-falty thinking process
delusions of persecution-think ppl are out to get you
delusions of grand dor- ppl believe they are someone their not, usuall some one important
record for sleep deprivation
264 hrs, taking only 14 hrs of sleep to get back to normal
how often do people dream?
everyone dreams everynight during REM
people are more likely to report dreaming?
if you awaken them during REM, they can probably tell you what they were dreaming of
how many dreams do u have during each REM period?
How are dreams at the beginning of the night?
dull and trivial
relate to things you did during the day
How are dreams as the night progresses?
dreams become more unusual, vivid, colorful, storylike
and easy to remember
what do we tend to dream about?
things that are important and an intrest to us.
maintaining a low level of concious awareness during dreaming
what can happen during lucid dreaming?
may beable to reconize your dreaming
may be able to take complete control of your dreams
when does night terrors or Pavor Nocturnicu occur?
stage 4 sleep
charictistics of night terror
what seems to cause night terrors?
dreams whos content is psychology disturbing to you
when do anxiety nightmares occur?
mostly during REM sleep but can occur during any stage
how do anxiety nightmares differ from night terrors?
occur during rem sleep
what is a drug?
and chemical substance which when taken in relatively small amounts, significally increase or decrease cellular activities somewhere in your body
what do drugs often affect and how?
the speed of neural firing, either slwing or speeding up neural firing
controlled use of poison
drigs that increase neural firing, making you physically and or mentally
how do stimulants work?
affect Autonamic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
part of you nervous system that controls automatic, involuntary activities such as breathing, heart beat, and digestion
what is caffeine?
most common stimulant
what are amphetamines?
stimulant affecting the central nervous system
how safe are amphetamines?
abusing them can cause parinoid schizopherenia
a seere mental illness involving delusions, hallucinations, faulty thinking and the idea that people are out to get you
what are depressants
drugs that slow down and inhibit neural firing
strong depressants that often are used as sleeping pills
what are tranquilizers?
drugs that help people relax and become less afraid of things
not as strong as brbiturates
valuim most common tranquilizer
how do tranquilizers work?
help you relax
what is asprin?
most common analgesic used world wide
considered the wonder or maricle drug
pain killing drug
artifically produced by man
how safe is asprin?
given to sick kids can cause mental illness
20% of all deaths by poisening are cause by asprin
narcotic drug derrived from the opium poppy
powerful pain killing drug
used for centuries
powerful analgesic synthesized from the opium poppy
predictable side effects
how is morphine made and used?
synthesized from opium poppy
when was morphine made?
how is morphine used?
frequantly used medically
what are endorphins?
natural pain killers produced by ur brain
can be as powerful as morphine
scientific name for endorphins
what is enkephalin?
first of all endorphins to be discovered
how do morphine and other opiates affect endorphins?
the brain reconizes the opiates are there to fight pain
brain cuts back production of endorphins
endorphin levels drop and take 2-3 weeks to get back to normal
left with the reduced ability to produce endorphins-positive feed back loop.
stops the production of endorphins
sometimes used medically in a persons last hours
why was herion developed?
was origanilly developed in the belief that it would be a safe- non addicting substitute to morphine
how safe is herion?
one use can cause addiction
what is nitrous oxide
who used nitrous oxide?
sergous and dentists to relax you
what was nitrous oxide replaced by?
local anestitics like peocaine and novocaine
procaine and novocaine
synthetic cocaine/local anestetics
what is cocaine?
a local anestic made from the leaves of a coca plant, that kills pain by inhibiting neural transmission in the area injected or put
what does cocain do?
in area injected stops neural firing
what did freud do with cocaine?
treat patients as a replacment for asprin
is cocaine addictive?
not addictive but extreamly habit forming
can experienced users distinguish it from a placebo?
no, but a new user can
drugs that disrupt your perceptions by scrambling your processing of sensory input
what do hallucinogens cause?
what is lsd?
strong synthesized hallucinogenic
doesnt occur naturally
How was LSD discovered?
discovered by a swiss scientists in 1943 on accident
is LSD a useful treatment for phychosis or other disorders?
no, LSD has no medical purpose
what is PCP?
a strong synthesized halluciongenic
kills pain by seperating mind from the body
how dangerous is PCP?
accounts for 1/2 of all admissions to mental hospitals for drug related problems
doesnt make you super strong, just makes you not realize your pain
convolusions,rage,uncontrolable, coma,, and death
what are circadian rythems?
repeating 24 hr natural patterns
examples of circadian rythems
what are biological clocks?
built in time keepers for bodily process
what do some biological clocks run on?
dream cycles are less than 24 hrs
what do other biological clocks run on?
menstruation cycle more than 24 hrs
are there really morning and evening people?
what is adrenalin?
an arousal hormone secreted by the kidneys
how many more time evening people are there compared to morning?
what happens in stage 0 sleep?
pre sleep, falling asleep
stage 1 sleep
irregular patterns, where real sleep begins
burst of brainwaves occuring 13-16 times per second
how many times per second do burst of brain waves occure in sleep spindles?
stage 3 sleep
transition to deep sleep, sleep spindles disappear
stage 4 sleeep
large slow waves about four cycles per second
stage 1 REM sleep
rapid eye movement
brain shows beta waves
where most dreaming occurs
also known as paradoxical sleep
how long is the first cycle of sleep?
about 90 mins
first sleep cycle
2nd and additional cycles
charistics of first sleep cycle
only stage with 0
shortest REM period lasting 8-15 min
longest stage 4 of night
later sleep cycles Rem period
at least 4 mins
how do your eyes move during REM sleep?
in short burst lasting a few seconds to a couple of minutes
can be up to 2-5 mins b/t burst
which hemisphere control dreams mostly?
right b/c the right is the emotional side and most dreams have emotional content and low verbal content
how do they know for sure that the right hemisphere controls dreaming?
right side is more electrically active during dreaming
the muscels you conciously have control over
what happens to voluntary muscels during REM sleep? and y?
they become paralized as a built in safty device so you dont act out your dreams
when you awake and your muscels are still paralized