lecture guide test

98 terms by cbecke77912

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chapter 4

how did removing certin brain tissue in cats affect muscle movements during dreming?

cats acted out their dreams

the study removing tissue from cats brain tissue showed

there is a center in the brain that keeps us from acting out our dreams

effects of sleep deprivation in humans

depends on how long deprived

one night sleep deprived

not much effects/ cranky

48 hr of sleep deprivation

irratiable and impulsive
suffer from poor judgement
bad decision making

100 hrs of sleep deprivation/ 4 full days

confusion
*ampathy- when you just dont care

after 100 hrs of sleep deprivation

begin to act mentally ill
have symptoms of parinoid schitzopherana
hullusiganiations
delusions-falty thinking process
delusions of persecution-think ppl are out to get you
delusions of grand dor- ppl believe they are someone their not, usuall some one important

record for sleep deprivation

264 hrs, taking only 14 hrs of sleep to get back to normal

how often do people dream?

everyone dreams everynight during REM

people are more likely to report dreaming?

if you awaken them during REM, they can probably tell you what they were dreaming of

how many dreams do u have during each REM period?

several

How are dreams at the beginning of the night?

dull and trivial
relate to things you did during the day

How are dreams as the night progresses?

dreams become more unusual, vivid, colorful, storylike
and easy to remember

what do we tend to dream about?

things that are important and an intrest to us.

lucid dreaming

maintaining a low level of concious awareness during dreaming

what can happen during lucid dreaming?

may beable to reconize your dreaming
may be able to take complete control of your dreams

Pavor Nocturinicus

night terror

when does night terrors or Pavor Nocturnicu occur?

stage 4 sleep

charictistics of night terror

dangerous dream
see creatures
inherated

what seems to cause night terrors?

its inherated
extream stress

Anxiety nightmares.

dreams whos content is psychology disturbing to you

when do anxiety nightmares occur?

mostly during REM sleep but can occur during any stage

how do anxiety nightmares differ from night terrors?

occur during rem sleep
very common

what is a drug?

and chemical substance which when taken in relatively small amounts, significally increase or decrease cellular activities somewhere in your body

what do drugs often affect and how?

the speed of neural firing, either slwing or speeding up neural firing

controlled use of poison

drugs

stimulants

drigs that increase neural firing, making you physically and or mentally

how do stimulants work?

affect Autonamic nervous system

autonomic nervous system

part of you nervous system that controls automatic, involuntary activities such as breathing, heart beat, and digestion

what is caffeine?

most common stimulant
mild

what are amphetamines?

stimulant affecting the central nervous system

how safe are amphetamines?

abusing them can cause parinoid schizopherenia

paranoid schizopherenia

a seere mental illness involving delusions, hallucinations, faulty thinking and the idea that people are out to get you

what are depressants

drugs that slow down and inhibit neural firing

barbiturates

strong depressants that often are used as sleeping pills

what are tranquilizers?

drugs that help people relax and become less afraid of things
not as strong as brbiturates
valuim most common tranquilizer

how do tranquilizers work?

help you relax

what is asprin?

most common analgesic used world wide
considered the wonder or maricle drug

analgesic-

pain killing drug

synthesized

artifically produced by man

how safe is asprin?

given to sick kids can cause mental illness
20% of all deaths by poisening are cause by asprin

opiates

narcotic drug derrived from the opium poppy
powerful pain killing drug
addictive
used for centuries

morphine

powerful analgesic synthesized from the opium poppy
pain killer
predictable side effects

how is morphine made and used?

synthesized from opium poppy

when was morphine made?

1806

how is morphine used?

frequantly used medically

what are endorphins?

natural pain killers produced by ur brain
can be as powerful as morphine

scientific name for endorphins

opioid peptides

what is enkephalin?

first of all endorphins to be discovered

how do morphine and other opiates affect endorphins?

the brain reconizes the opiates are there to fight pain
brain cuts back production of endorphins
endorphin levels drop and take 2-3 weeks to get back to normal
left with the reduced ability to produce endorphins-positive feed back loop.

herion

synthesized endorphins
stops the production of endorphins
sometimes used medically in a persons last hours

why was herion developed?

was origanilly developed in the belief that it would be a safe- non addicting substitute to morphine

how safe is herion?

one use can cause addiction

what is nitrous oxide

laughing gas

who used nitrous oxide?

sergous and dentists to relax you

what was nitrous oxide replaced by?

local anestitics like peocaine and novocaine

procaine and novocaine

synthetic cocaine/local anestetics

what is cocaine?

a local anestic made from the leaves of a coca plant, that kills pain by inhibiting neural transmission in the area injected or put

what does cocain do?

in area injected stops neural firing

what did freud do with cocaine?

treat patients as a replacment for asprin

is cocaine addictive?

not addictive but extreamly habit forming

can experienced users distinguish it from a placebo?

no, but a new user can

hallucinogens

drugs that disrupt your perceptions by scrambling your processing of sensory input

what do hallucinogens cause?

hallucionations

what is lsd?

strong synthesized hallucinogenic
doesnt occur naturally

How was LSD discovered?

discovered by a swiss scientists in 1943 on accident

is LSD a useful treatment for phychosis or other disorders?

no, LSD has no medical purpose

what is PCP?

angel dust
a strong synthesized halluciongenic
dissociative anestic

dissociative anesthetic

kills pain by seperating mind from the body

how dangerous is PCP?

accounts for 1/2 of all admissions to mental hospitals for drug related problems
doesnt make you super strong, just makes you not realize your pain
convolusions,rage,uncontrolable, coma,, and death

what are circadian rythems?

repeating 24 hr natural patterns

examples of circadian rythems

body temperature

what are biological clocks?

built in time keepers for bodily process

what do some biological clocks run on?

dream cycles are less than 24 hrs

what do other biological clocks run on?

menstruation cycle more than 24 hrs

are there really morning and evening people?

yes

what is adrenalin?

an arousal hormone secreted by the kidneys

how many more time evening people are there compared to morning?

2x

what happens in stage 0 sleep?

pre sleep, falling asleep
alpha waves

stage 1 sleep

irregular patterns, where real sleep begins

stage 2

sleep spindles

sleep spindles

burst of brainwaves occuring 13-16 times per second

how many times per second do burst of brain waves occure in sleep spindles?

13-16

stage 3 sleep

transition to deep sleep, sleep spindles disappear

stage 4 sleeep

deep sleep
delta waves

delta waves

large slow waves about four cycles per second

stage 1 REM sleep

rapid eye movement
brain shows beta waves
where most dreaming occurs
also known as paradoxical sleep

how long is the first cycle of sleep?

about 90 mins

0.1.2.3.4.3.2.REM

first sleep cycle

2.3.4.3.2.REM

2nd and additional cycles

charistics of first sleep cycle

only stage with 0
shortest REM period lasting 8-15 min
longest stage 4 of night

later sleep cycles Rem period

at least 4 mins

how do your eyes move during REM sleep?

in short burst lasting a few seconds to a couple of minutes
can be up to 2-5 mins b/t burst

which hemisphere control dreams mostly?

right b/c the right is the emotional side and most dreams have emotional content and low verbal content

how do they know for sure that the right hemisphere controls dreaming?

right side is more electrically active during dreaming

voluntary muscels

the muscels you conciously have control over

what happens to voluntary muscels during REM sleep? and y?

they become paralized as a built in safty device so you dont act out your dreams

sleep paralisis

when you awake and your muscels are still paralized

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