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A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as

A. fixation.
B. free association.
C. factor analysis.
D. hypnosis.

Free association

When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his

A. superego.
B. ego.
C. id.
D. Oedipus complex.

id

No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a

A. weak id.
B. weak ego.
C. strong id.
D. strong superego.

strong superego.

Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the ________ stage of development.

A. phallic
B. anal
C. latency
D. oral

anal

Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the strengthening of

A. the Oedipus complex.
B. free association.
C. the superego.
D. erogenous zones.

he superego.

Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, "You could better spend the time playing with our kids." Melissa's comment best illustrates

A. projection.
B. rationalization.
C. displacement.
D. reaction formation.

rationalization.

The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that

A. no computer-aided tool has been designed to facilitate scoring of the test.
B. only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.
C. the test discourages individuals from communicating openly in clinical interviews.
D. the test can be used effectively only with individuals who are severely maladjusted.

only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.

Survivors' vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of

A. fixation.
B. repression.
C. the Oedipus complex.
D. motivational conflict.

repression.

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as

A. the spotlight effect.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. self-actualization.
D. free association.

unconditional positive regard.

Humanistic theorists have been criticized for

A. overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality.
B. underestimating the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another.
C. overestimating the degree of similarity among people.
D. underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?

A. MMPI
B. Rorschach
C. TAT
D. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

MMPI

People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades.

A. extraversion
B. neuroticism
C. agreeableness
D. conscientiousness

conscientiousness

One problem with personailty inventories is that

A. they overemphasize past experiences and unconsious motivations.
B. people have a tendency to answer in a socially desirable manner.
C. they are overly optimistic about human nature.
D. they fail to show validity with people's typical behavior in real-life situations.

people have a tendency to answer in a socially desirable manner.

Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seem reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of __________ on behavior.

A. personality traits.
B. self-actualization.
C. reciprocal determinism.
D. defense mechanisms.

personality traits.

Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by

A. an external locus of control.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. the self-serving bias.
D. the Barnum effect.

reciprocal determinism.

Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates

A. reciprocal determinism.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. reaction formation.
D. an internal locus of control.

An internal locus of control.

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates

A. an inferiority complex.
B. the spotlight effect.
C. learned helplessness.
D. an internal locus of control.

learned helplessness.

The social-cognitive perspective is LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of

A. environmental influences.
B. unconscious motives.
C. personality traits.
D. genetic influences.

environmental influences.

Research on self-perception indicates that most people

A. feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes.
B. view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
C. underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments.
D. are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future.

view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.

Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates

A. the spotlight effect.
B. the false consensus effect.
C. defensive self-esteem.
D. learned helplessness.

defensive self-esteem.

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