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Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne's therapeutic approach would best be described as

A. biomedical.
B. psychoanalytic.
C. behavioral.
D. eclectic.

eclectic

Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of

A. client-centered therapy.
B. cognitive therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. systematic desensitization.

psychoanalysis.

Psychodynamic therapy is ________ than traditional psychoanalysis.

A. less effective
B. briefer
C. more expensive
D. less commonly used

briefer

Which therapeutic approach relies most heavily on patients' discovering their own ways of effectively dealing with their difficulties?

A. psychoanalysis
B. cognitive therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. client-centered therapy

client-centered therapy

Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine

A. answering questions on a college test.
B. waiting for a professor to hand out tests.
C. studying for a test.
D. registering for a college course.

registering for a college course.

Praising socially withdrawn children when they have eye contact with others and ignoring them after a temper tantrum best illustrates an application of

A. cognitive therapy.
B. facilitated communication.
C. operant conditioning.
D. unconditional positive regard.

operant conditioning.

Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to

A. carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.
B. take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.
C. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
D. identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for

A. encouraging severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.
B. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
C. ensuring that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients' real-life problems.
D. eliminating clients' anxiety during the process of therapy.

enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.

People often enter psychotherapy during a period of crisis in their lives. This helps us understand why they

A. prefer behavior therapies over other forms of treatment.
B. seldom block anxiety-laden thoughts from consciousness.
C. tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy.
D. claim to receive the most effective treatment from highly experienced clinicians.

tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy.

A statistical summary of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies led researchers in 1980 to report that

A. evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.
B. psychotherapy is no more effective than talking to a friend.
C. psychotherapy harms just as many people as it helps.
D. it is impossible to measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.

Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of

A. anxiety.
B. bulimia.
C. depression.
D. alcohol dependency.

depression.

A common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the

A. professional training and experience of the therapist.
B. escape from real-life pressures offered by psychotherapy.
C. length of time the client spends in psychotherapy.
D. client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better.

client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better.

Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a

A. clinical social worker.
B. cognitive therapist.
C. psychiatrist.
D. client-centered therapist.

psychiatrist.

Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to

A. the therapeutic alliance.
B. the placebo effect.
C. progressive relaxation.
D. stress inoculation training.

the placebo effect.

Sluggishness, tremors, and twitches similar to those of Parkinson's disease are most likely to be associated with the excessive use of certain ________ drugs.

A. antidepressant
B. antipsychotic
C. mood-stabilizing
D. antianxiety

antipsychotic

One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is

A. aerobic exercise.
B. psychosurgery.
C. virtual reality exposure therapy.
D. EMDR.

aerobic exercise.

Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?

A. electroconvulsive therapy
B. drug therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. cognitive therapy

electroconvulsive therapy

Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie

A. psychoanalysis.
B. psychosurgery.
C. drug therapy.
D. preventive mental health.

preventive mental health.

Prototype is to category as _________ is to __________.

A. rose; flower
B. couch; bed
C. man; woman
D. rope; weapon

rose; flower

The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to

A. save time in arriving at solutions to problems.
B. yield more accurate solutions to problems.
C. minimize the overconfidence phenomenon.
D. involve greater reliance on language skills.

save time in arriving at solutions to problems.

Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates

A. the availability heuristic.
B. confirmation bias.
C. the framing effect.
D. the representativeness heuristic.

confirmation bias.

Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an older person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of

A. confirmation bias.
B. belief perseverance.
C. the representativeness heuristic.
D. framing.

the representativeness heuristic.

A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by

A. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
B. the representativeness heuristic.
C. confirmation bias.
D. the availability heuristic.

the availability heuristic.

We fear too little those events that will claim lives

A. accidentally.
B. undramatically.
C. in the near future.
D. in large groups.

undramatically.

On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the effect of

A. confirmation bias.
B. overconfidence.
C. the representativeness heuristic.
D. framing

framing

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