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Asteroid

Mars and Jupiter- Belt- Rocks

Trojan

Jupiters family of asteroids

Earth Crossers

Apollo class can hit NEO- Near earth objects

Oort's Cloud

spherical cloud surrounding solar system 50000 AU

Kuiper's Belt

Outside Neptune- leftover planetismals

Meteroid

Small piece in space

Meteor

burning up in out atemosphere

Meteroite

Rock on the ground

Photosphere

part of the sun we see about 500 miles thick - 5800K

Chromo sphere

pink-- 10000 miles above photosphere- 15000K

Corona and Holes

outer atm and 1,000,000K+-- areas which have no corona are called holes

Luminosity

how much energy sun gives off - we use sun as standard unit of 1 solar lum

Convection Zone

area just below surface that energy moves and undulates sun surface

Radiation Zone

area around core of sun that moves the energy

Core

15,000,000K dense and all fusion takes place here

Helio Seismology

study of convection undulations below surface

Granualtion

salt and pepper texture on surface due to convection

Sunspots

Magnetic storms cooler by 2000K on suns surface

Cycle

11 years if you look at numbers and 22 years if you look at total polarity switch

Prominences

loops of gasses that connect paired sunspots

Flares

hot storms that last 5 to 20 minutes 5 million degrees sends out a lot of x rays and solar radiation

Fusion

combining hydrogen into helium which releases energy only in core

p-p reaction

reaction that takes place in suns core- 4 hydrogen to 1 helium

E=mc2

E= enegry m= mass c= speed of light

Neutrinos

essentially mass less particles that are created at sunds core and may let us study the core

Parsec

parallax of one arc sec- 3.26 light years

Proper Motion

amouth stars moves across the sky- most are to far away to see proper motion

Apparent Brightness

Brightness of star in night sky

Magnitude Scale

each magnitude number changes by 2.5 times up of down

Absolute Mag

How bright star would appear at 10 parsecs

Mass-Luminosity

the more massive the star the brighter it is

Radius-luminosity-temperature relationship

to truly know the brightness of star you need to know size and temp

Visual Binaries

can see the two stars and used to get masses

Spectroscopic Binaries

cannot see the companions but spectrum tells them they are there

Spectroscopic Parallax

uses HR diagram to measure distance to stars

Eclipsing Binaries

two stars the block each others light-- east to measure masses of stars

Main sequence turnoff point

star leaves main sequence as it gets old

Molecular Clouds

large cool gas cloud that have many material and dust- star formation

Protostar

forming star

Jets

gasses ejected as star forms

Thermal vs Degenerate Pressure

thermal- out
degenerate- stops collapse inward

Brown Dwarfs

failed stars

Hydrogen Shell Burning

olders stars having fusion moved out from core

Helium fusion-flash

star trying new fuel in flash

White dwarf and planetary nebula

sun dies are core called white dwarf surrounded by planetary nebula

CNO cycle

more massive stars than sun use this

Iron Stage

last fuel most massive stars can use

Supernova

huge explosion - type 1 binary star dearth type II one large star explosion

Neutron Star

1.4 to 6 solar mass-- 10 mile collapsed core of neutrons

Electron Degeneracy

That which stops white dwarf from collapsing any further

White Dwarf

.1 to 1.4 sollar masses - sun ends up this 10000 miles across- earth size

White dwarf limit

.1 to 1.4

Accretion Disk

material falling in 10 percent energy production

Nova

Binary star explosion- periodic

White Dwarf Supernova

binary stars collaps on each other - type 1

Massive star Supernova explosion

type II one large star explosion

Neutron Stars

1.4 to 6 solar masses-- 10 mile collapsed core of neutrons

Neutron Degeneracy

stops further collapse

Pulsars

rotating neutron star

Black Hole

light cannon escape- 6 solar masses and above

Schwarz Child Radius

the size of a black holes event horizon

Event Horizon

once you cross you cannot return

Signularity

mass but no size

Gamma Ray Bursts

matter falling into black holes giving large explosions to gammas

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