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Composite Image/Twisted Perspective

An image formed by combining different images or different views of the subject

Cromlech

A prehistoric monument consisting of monoliths encircling a mound

Dolmen

A structure formed by 2+ large, upright stones capped by a horizontal slab. Thought to be a prehistoric tomb

Neolithic

Denoting the later part of the stone age, where ground or polished stone implements prevailed

Paleolithic

Denoting the early phase of the stone age, lasting about 2.5 mil years, when primitive stone implements were used

Post and Lintel

A basic system of construction in which 2+ uprights, the posts, support a horizontal member, the lintel. The lintel may be the topmost element or support a wall or roof

Arcade

A series of arches supported by piers or columns

Blind Arcade

When a series of arches supported by piers or columns are attached to a wall

Ziggurat

A pyramidal mound or tower built of mudbrick forming the base for a temple. It was often stepped or had a broad ascent winding around it, which gave the appearance of steps

Lamassu

An Ancient Near Eastern guard of a palace, often shown in sculpture as a human headed bull or lion with wings

Orthostats

Upright slabs of stone constituting or lining the lowest courses of a wall, often in order to protect a vulnerable material, such as mudbrick

Stele

An upright stone slab or pillar, sometimes with a carved design or inscription

Stylus

An ancient writing implement, consisting of a small rod with a pointed end for scratching letters on wax tablets, and a blunt end for obliterating them

Hieroglyph

A symbol often based on a figure, animal, or object standing for a word, syllable, or sound. These symbols form the early Egyptian writing system and are found on ancient Egyptian monuments, as well as in records.

Hypostyle

A hall whose roof is supported by columns

Mastaba

An ancient Egyptian tomb, rectangular in shape, with sloping sides and a flat roof. It covered a chapel for offerings and a shaft to the burial chamber

Necropolis

Greek for "city of the dead". A burial ground or cemetery

Obelisk

A tall, tapering 4-sided stone shaft with a pyramidal top (ex. Washington monument)

Pylon

Greek word for "gateway". (1) The monumental entrance building to an Egyptian temple or forecourt consisting either of a massive wall with sloping sides pierced by a doorway or 2 such walls flanking a central gateway. (2) A tall structure at either side of a gate, bridge, or avenue marring an approach or entrance

Sarcophagus

A large coffin, generally of stone, and often decorated with sculpture or inscriptions. The term is derived from Greek "flesh" and "eating".

Sphinx

A mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and the head of a human or cat. It was used at the site of Egyptian tombs/pyramids.

Tholos

A building with a circular plan, often with a sacred nature

Megaron

From the Greek word for "large". The central audience hall in a Minoan or Mycenaen palace or home

Heraldic Pose

A pose where 2 figures are mirror images of one another, sometimes flanking a central object

Buon Fresco

Technique of painting on WET plaster with pigments ground in water so that the paint is absorbed by the plaster and becomes part of the wall itself

Ashlar Masonry

Carefully finished stone that is set in fine joints to create an even surface

Pronaos

In a Greek or Roman temple, an open vestibule in front of the cella

Peristyle

(1) In a roman house or domus, an open garden court surrounded by a colonnade (2) A colonnade around a building or court

Triglyphs

A tablet in a doric frieze with 3 vertical grooves. Triglyphs alternate with metopes

Metopes

The element of a doric frieze between 2 consecutive triglyphs. They were sometimes left plain, but often decorated with paint or relief sculpture

Frieze

(1) A continuous band of painted or sculptured decoration (2) In a classical building, the part of the entablature between the architrave and the cornice. A doric frieze consists of alternating triglyphs and metopes, the latter often sculptured. An ionic frieze is usually decorated with continuous relief sculture

Pediment

(1) In classical architecture, a low gable, typically triangular, framed by a horizontal cornice below and 2 raking cornices above, frequently filled with sculpture (2)A similar architectural member used over a door, window, or niche. When pieces of the cornice are either turned at an angle or interrupted, its called a broken pediment

Flute

The vertical channels or grooves in Classical column shafts sometimes though to imitate the faceting of a hewn log

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