Micro chapter 4

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1. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus appears microscopically as
A. a spirillum with polar flagella.
B. an encapsulated rod.
C. a curved rod with pili.
D. a grape-like cluster of spheres.
E. a sporeforming rod.

D. a grape-like cluster of spheres.

All the following are functions of the bacterial cell membrane except
A. lends rigidity to the cell.
B. site of enzymes for chemical reactions.
C. enclosure for the cytoplasm.
D. control of passage of biological molecules into the cytoplasm.
E. boundary layer of the cell.

A. lends rigidity to the cell.

Thermacidophiles like to live under what type of conditions?
A. hot and salty
B. cold and acidic
C. wet and salty
D. cold and waxy
E. hot and acidic

E. hot and acidic

Which of the following does NOT apply to the bacterial glycocalyx?
A. It allows the organism to resist drying.
B. It is composed of carbohydrates and small proteins.
C. It is enclosed by the cell wall.
D. It may be a cause of ropy bread or milk.
E. It may allow an organism to resist phagocytosis.

C. It is enclosed by the cell wall.

The fluid mosaic model best describes
A. the structure of the bacterial spore.
B. the ability of bacteria to solubilize protein.
C. the structure of the cell membrane.
D. the ability of bacteria to move in liquid solutions.
E. the structure of the cell wall.

C. the structure of the cell membrane.

Autotrophy and heterotrophy refer to
A. patterns for satisfying an organism's nutritional needs.
B. temperature requirements for the growth of different bacteria.
C. the ability of a bacterium to form spores and capsules, respectively.
D. variations in the appearance of the bacterial magnetosome.
E. none of these.

A. patterns for satisfying an organism's nutritional needs.

The agar in nutrient agar serves as a
A. protein source.
B. pH stabilizer.
C. medium supplement.
D. solidifying agent.
E. storehouse for carbohydrates.

D. solidifying agent.

. An organism having pili has the advantage over one which lacks pili because it can
A. move actively.
B. obtain nutrients from beef broth.
C. stain easily.
D. attach to various surfaces including tissue.
E. synthesize glycoproteins.

D. attach to various surfaces including tissue.

. A selective medium is one that
A. contains blood.
B. allows one type of bacteria to grow while inhibiting another type.
C. permits bacterial rods to grow while inhibiting cocci.
D. contains no identifiable components
E. allows the colony of one type of bacteria to be distinguished from the colony of another.

B. allows one type of bacteria to grow while inhibiting another type.

The peptidoglycan of a bacterium
A. is located primarily in the spore.
B. together with protein is formed in the capsule.
C. cannot be synthesized if penicillin is present.
D. is associated with the cell membrane.
E. is found in Gram-positive bacteria only.

C. cannot be synthesized if penicillin is present.

The process by which bacteria reproduce is known as
A. meiosis.
B. spontaneous generation.
C. mitosis.
D. spontaneous mutation.
E. binary fission.

E. binary fission.

All the following can be components of the bacterial cytoplasm except
A. magnetosome.
B. ribosome.
C. chromosome.
D. peptidoglycan.
E. plasmids.

D. peptidoglycan.

All the following apply to pili except
A. they are composed of protein.
B. they are found primarily in Gram-positive bacteria.
C. they have no function in motility.
D. they anchor bacteria to surfaces.
E. they can induce formation of antipili antibodies.

B. they are found primarily in Gram-positive bacteria.

All the following are variations of cocci except
A. spirococcus.
B. tetrads.
C. diplococcus.
D. streptococcus.
E. staphylococcus.

A. spirococcus.

Bacterial cytoplasm contains all of the following, except
A. ribosomes.
B. chromosomes.
C. plasmids.
D. mitochondria.

D. mitochondria.

A soil sample is added to a culture medium that has been designed to promote the growth of the genus Pseudomonas while inhibiting the growth of fungi. This test utilizes a(n)
A. nutrient medium.
B. natural medium.
C. selective medium.
D. minimal medium.

C. selective medium.

Bacteria reproduce by a process known as
A. meiosis.
B. binary fission.
C. mitosis.
D. spontaneous generation.

B. binary fission.

Small molecules of DNA exist in bacteria as circular units. They contain few genes but are extremely important since they carry traits for drug resistance. These molecules are known as
A. chromosomes.
B. nucleoids.
C. plasmids.
D. nucleoli.

C. plasmids.

Endospores are heat-stable resting forms of all of the bacteria listed below, except
A. Bacillus anthracis.
B. Escherichia coli.
C. Clostridium perfringens.
D. Clostridium botulinium.

B. Escherichia coli.

A bacterium characterized as a tetrad has which of the following morphological shapes?
A. rod
B. spherical in long chains
C. spherical in packets of four or eight
D. spherical

C. spherical in packets of four or eight

An organism that grows best in an extremely harsh environment is called a(n):
A. extremophile.
B. methanogen.
C. autotroph.
D. heterotroph.

B. methanogen.

All of the following are characteristics of the bacterial flagellum, except
A. Rigid filament of protein.
B. Rotates to propel bacterium forward.
C. It is used in conjugation.
D. A bacterium may have one or more than one.

C. It is used in conjugation.

Spherical organisms arranged in irregular groups of cells that resemble bunches of grapes are referred to as
A. staphylococci.
B. streptococci.
C. bacilli.
D. cocci.

A. staphylococci.

Thin, flowing, loosely bound glycocalyx is referred to as
A. capsule
B. slime layer
C. biofilm
D. cell envelope

B. slime layer

Archaea are not considered true bacteria for all of the following reasons except
A. no peptidoglycan in their cell wall
B. high gene compatibility with bacteria
C. unusual lipid composition in their cell membrane
D. RNA in ribosomes has unique chemical composition

D. RNA in ribosomes has unique chemical composition

Bacterial chromosomes are found:
A. in the nucleoid region
B. near the flagellum
C. in the cell wall
D. in storage granules
E. in the pili

A. in the nucleoid region

Bacteria that are staphylococcus are seen as:
A. clusters
B. groups of rods
C. chains
D. as doublets
E. as singlets

A. clusters

Bacteria that are bacillus are seen as:
A. cones
B. rods
C. triplets
D. spheres
E. squares

B. rods

The Gram staining procedure distinguishes bacterial cells based on the properties of their:
A. cytoplasmic constituents
B. plasma membranes
C. cell wall
D. pili
E. none of the above

C. cell wall

The main difference in between Gram negative bacteria and Gram positive bacteria is:
A. the lipids in the plasma membrane
B. the cell wall
C. size
D. the F-pilus
E. all of the above

B. the cell wall

Pili are structures of the:
A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. ribosome
D. DNA
E. outside of the cell

B. plasma membrane

Compared to the Gram negative cell wall, the peptidoglycan layer of the Gram positive cell wall is:
A. thicker
B. thinner
C. similar in chemical composition
D. similar in thickness
E. it can depend on the specific bacteria

A. thicker

The movement of bacteria toward an attractant can be described as a series of:
A. swims and pauses
B. tweedle-dees and tweedle-dums
C. runs and passes
D. runs and tumbles
E. runs and pauses

D. runs and tumbles

. The peptidoglycan chain is made up of polymers of:
A. alanine and glycine
B. cytosine and guanine
C. glucose and ribose
D. modified sugars
E. ATP and protein

D. modified sugars

Safranin is a counterstain used in the gram stain procedure because:
A. cells will not stain gram positive without it
B. safranin accentuates the gram positive stain
C. the gram negative cells will be unstained otherwise
D. the purple color is hard to see in the microscope
E. all of the above

the gram negative cells will be unstained otherwise

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