the number and relative abundance of species in a biological community
in an ecological sense, the tendency of a biological community to remain in more or less constant balance due largely to interactions among organisms
a plant species that dominates a plant community, example can be wetlands, the plant has an exponential growth and takes over.
the feeding relationship in an ecosystem. Trophic structure determines the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling in an ecosystem.
competitive exclusion principle
two species compete for a resource and one species gets the resource and the other doesn't. The species that doesn't get the resource dies out or has to move.
a population's role in its community. The sum total of a species' use of that biotic and Abiotic resource of its habitat.
the division of environment resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species.
the hunting of a species
the animal hunting another animal(prey)
animal getting hunted by the predator
(predator-prey, plant defenses, animal defenses)-how a species can adapt(change)to its environment. Predator can adapt to blend into the environment and get its' prey, plants can adapt to not get eaten by animals, and animals can adapt to not become prey for another animal
type of coloration that makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background
bright colors that might mean that the organism is poisonous
when an organism that isn't harmful looks like an organism that is harmful
when two harmful organisms look alike to help limit predation
a predator that limits a specie's, who could take over the ecosystem, population
the relationship between 2 species, often the smaller species living in or on the other species. Either 1 species benefits or both do
the larger organism, which has the smaller(parasite) living in or on it
living in or on the host, but it survives off the host.
a symbiotic relationship where only the parasite benefits
a symbiotic relationship where both the organisms benefit.
type of symbiotic relationship where one organism is benefited and the other is neither helped or harmed
disturbances that damage communities, at least temporarily, by destroying organisms and altering availability of resources such as minerals and waters.
the process of change after large periodic disturbances.
primary vs. secondary succession
Primary is when something like a glacial retreat happens and a ecosystem forms from there, secondary is when something not as catastrophic occurs to an already existent ecosystem
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
the hypothesis is that if an ecosystem gets an intermediate amount of disturbances, it has a lot of diversity
Energy cannot be recycled like chemicals are, so there is always an continuous flow
the use and reuse of chemical elements such as carbon in an ecosystem
a sequence of food transfers from producers through several levels of consumers in an ecosystem
make own food
only eats vegetation
only eats meat
Heterotrophs (not in all ecosystems)
An animal or organism that eats dead organisms
bacteria or other organisms that decompose dead organisms
dead organisms to gets eaten/decomposed
food webs vs. food chains
food webs are more specific to one single ecosystem, when food chains are briefer and can compare too many different ecosystems.
Eats both meat and vegetation
the amount, or mass, of organic material in an ecosystem
the rate at which an ecosystem's plants and other producers build biomass, or organic matter
As enegery transfers up trophic levels, only 10% of the energy gets transfer up each level. E.g. producer has 100 energy, primary consumer gets 10 energy.
The movement of nutrients/chemicals in an ecosystem
an Abiotic reservoir of nutrients in an ecosystem
The movement of carbon in an ecosystem
the movement of phosphorus in an ecosystem.
the movement of water through an ecosystem.
the movement of nitrogen in an ecosystem.
Major types of ecosystems that cover a large geographic region
Tropics of cancer(northern) Tropic of Capricorn(southern)
latitudes between the tropics and the arctic circle in the north and the Antarctic circle in the south. Regions with milder climates than tropics or polar regions
tropical forest, savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grassland, temperate deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra
fresh water and marine water
the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments
nonliving chemical and physical factors
living factors, all other organisms that are part of an individual's environment that isn't abiotic
the branch of ecology concerned with the morphological, physiological, and behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their biotic and abiotic environments
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
the study of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.
all organisms that inhabit a particular area
the study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization
all abiotic factors and the community of species in a certain area
the study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
global ecosystem- the sum of all the planet's ecosystems, all life and where it lives
the process of an organism's adjustment to an abiotic factor
mark captured animal, and release it. wait for animal to mix randomly with unmarked animals, and collect all marked animals.
the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume
the way individuals are spaced within the population's geographic range
change in population size per time interval
environmental factors that restrict population growth
logistic growth model
a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors
number of individuals in a popoulation that the environment can maintain with no net increase or decrease indefinitely
competition between individuals of the same species for the same limited resources
population-limiting factor whose effects intensify as the population increases in density
population-limiting factor whose intensity is unrelated to population density