final study guide

144 terms by lilmissie80 

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cell

basic unit of structure and function

protoplasm

colorless, jelly like substance that contains food elements like protein, fats, carbs and minerla salts

except protoplasm

principle part of a celll

differentiation

repeated division of the ovum during early development that renders specialized cells unique

anabolism

metabolic process of buliding larger molecules from smaller ones

ectoderm

layer of embrionic cells that form the glands of the skin, liining of mouth, anal canal, and nervous system

perichondrium

membrane covering cartilage

adipose tissue

areolar tissue w/ alot of fat cells is

coronal

body front to back

cranial

cavity that the brain is in

stratum germinativum

deepest layer in epidermis

acidic

healthy skin is moist, soft and slightly.....

sudoriferous

glands that respond to elevated body temp resulting from environmental conditions or physical activity

arrector pili

goose bumps

wheal

insect bite, that dont last long

rosacea

oily skin and chronic inflammation of cheek and nose

basal cell carcinoma

least malignant and most common skin cancer

contact dermatitis

abnormal skin rash from chemicals

long bones

include bones of legs, fingers and toes

compact bone tissue

forms the hard bone in the shafts of the long bones and formed outside flat bones

spongy bone

inside long bones, its irregularly shaped spaces are defined by thin, bony plates

thoracic cage

consists of the ribs and sternum

patella

kneecap

synarthrotic joints

basicly immovable

tenovial

not in a class of joints

ball and socket

greatest range of motion

osteoarthritis

chronic disease of aging

600

number of muscles

smooth

muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system

sarcoplasmic reticulum

network of membranous channels in the muscle cells that realease calcium ions, causing muscle contractions

irritability

capacity of muscle to receive and react to stimuli

aerobic cellular respiration

occurs in cells mitochindria

type 2

chicken is made of this type of muscle fibers

insertion of a

muscle is the more mobile attachment of a muscle to bone

synergists

muscles that help the prime mover are called

hypertrophy

enlargement of muscle breadth by repeated forceful muscle activity

heart enclosed in 2 layer membrane

pericardium

bicuspid valve

aka-mitral valve; located between the left atrium and left ventricle, allows blood to flow from left artium to left ventrcle

capillaries

smallest blood vessels

vasodilation

relaxation and enlargement of the arterial walls

hematoma

bleeding under skin, sometimes deep in body tissues

50-60%

percentage of plasma in the blood

leukocytes

white corpuscles that protect the body from disease and infection

seratonin

is a vasoconstrictor that causes a vascular spasm that temporarily closed a blood vessel

aplastic

anemia occurs when bone marrow stops production of blood cells

afferent/sensory nerves

carry impulses toward the spinal cord and brain

dura mater

outer layer of meningies, fibrous connective tissue sheath covering the brain and spinal cord

cerebrum

part of the brain stem-except

autonomic nervous system

regulates action of glands, smooth muscles and heart

sacral plexus

spinal nerves, merges to form several collateral nerves and one maim branch, the sciatic nerve

nociceptors

dectect pain in every tissue but the brain

golgi tendon organs

multi branches sensory nerve endings in tendons

progesterone

and esterogen, 2 hormones needed for female reproduction

gamete

cell that can unite with another gamete to form the cell that develops into a new individual

ovary

female sex gland

semineferous tubules

where sperm cells are made

testoserone

interstitial cells of leydig produce this male hormone

cowpers gland

2 pea shaped glands below prostate gland

vagina

muscular tube leading from vulva opening to the cervix, lower part of the birth canal

uterus

pear shaped, muscular organ, made of upper portion, body and neck

menstration

uterine bleeding occurring every 4 weeks suring female reproductive period

found in plasma

ALL D, hormones, nutrients and carbon dioxide

right atrium

superior and inferior vena cava empties in to

atherosclerosis

aka hardening of the arteries

hypertension

D- high blood pressure or HBP

brachicardia

heart rate below 60 beats per minute or slow heart rhythm

thrombosis

stationary blood clot

rapid heart beat

tachycardia

platelets are

D, neccesary for clotting, thrombocytes and formed elements in the blood

sinoatrial node or SA node

pacemaker of the heart

inherited blood disorder

sickle cell anemia

rh mom should be worried about fetalis

she should not be worried

heart is located

in thoracic and ventral cavity, mediastinum

slightly alkaline

healthy, normal blood ph

role of hemoglobing or rbcs

D-oxygen to the cells, carry hormones and carry carbon dioxide from the cells

universal donor

type O blood

hemophilia

x-linked inherited disorder usually males have ot

blood flow thru the heart in this order

right atrium right ventricle
left artium left ventricle

dermis

collegen and elastin are 2 types of connective tissue found here

dermis

thicker and deeper of 2 primary skin layers

boil

furnuncle or carbuncle

epidermis

layer of skin with keratin

not a function of skin

movement

appocrine

suderiferous gland found in axilla and genitals

sebaceous

gland the secretes sebum or oil to protect and lubricate the skin and hair

impetigo

contagious bacterial infection in kids

wart

3 kinds-common, plantar and veneral.....papillomavirus

primary function of muscular system except

D-protection

twitch

quick, jerky movement

motor unit

single motor neuron, along with muscle cells it attaches to is called

all or none

when mudcle fibers respond toa a threshhold stimulus and contrace completly

flexion

makes angle between bones smaller at the joint

atp, adenosine triphosphate

energy necessary for muscle contraction supplied by

voluntary muscles

D-striated and skeletal

extension

movement opposite of flexion

striated muscles

B-C cardiaca and skeletal

biceps brachii is prime mover

when elbow bends

helps maintain posture

tonic contraction of of type 1 muscles

smooth and involuntary

visceral muscles

isometric

lifting a 500 lb weight and and not moving it

example of rotation

shaking head no

during strenous exercise

D-oxygen debt and muscle contractions are tonic

isotonic

lifting book off table

muscles of a weightlifter compared to a runner

larger muscle cells

sarcomere

smallest most basic functional unit in skeletal muscle

when skeletal muscke contracts

D-heat, attachment is stationary bone at origin and attachment is more moveable at insertion

nerve cell-neuron made of

D-dendrites, axon, cell body

cauda equina

horse tail, formed by lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves

PNS made of

cranial and spinal nerves

sciatic nerve

biggest peripheral nerve

herpes zoster and shingles

viral infection that affects a single dermatone

brachial plexus

nerve plexus that supplies nerves to arm

arachnoid and pia mater between

cerebralspinal fluid

2 way neuron pathway

most simple nervous system pathway

interneuron

another name for connecting neuron

efferent

motor neuron that carry impulses away from the brain

dendrites

D-send nerve impulses to the cell body and away from the cell body of a neuron

axons

D- have axon terminals, carry impulses away from cell body and have schwann cells

Autonomic system subdivision of

PNS

cranial nerve controlls movement of neck and shoulder muscles

CN11

CNS made of

brain and spinal cord

12 pairs

number of cranial nerves

nerves of parasympathetic nervous system originate

in brain and spinal cord

bone cells

reffered to as osteons

flat bone

not a type of bone

lordosis

swayback

rheumatoid arthritis

inflammatory joint disease

sprain

injury to ligaments

hematopoiesis

the process of blood cell formation

open fracture

compound fracture

bone building cells are

osteoblasts

cartilage cells are

chondrocytes

in a hinge joint

a synovial membrane

osteoclasts

bone resorbing cells, cell eating phagocytes

diathrotic joints

D-make up most joints in body and have a joint capsule

epiphyseal plate

can grow as long as cartilage in still in there

amphiarthroses

Cartilaginous or fibrous joints, slightly moveable pubic syntheses

bursae

flattened fibrous sacs lined w/synovial membrane, contains synovial fluid between bones and tissuses

number or vertebrae in adult skeleton

26

scoliosis

lateral curvature of spine

periosteum

tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone, attachment side for tendons and muscles

number of ribs in thoractc cage

24

epiphysis

where hematopoiesis occurs in the long bones

dislocation

sublexation

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