Sociology Chapter 9

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social stratification

a strucutred ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society (key components- class, status,control and power)

absolute poverty

a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below

bourgeoisie

Karl Marx's term for the capitalist's class compromsing the owners of the means of production

capitalism

an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for the economic activities is the accumulation of profits

caste system

a herditary rank usually relgiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile

class system

a social ranking based primiarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility

horizontal social mobility

movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank

inTERgenerational mobility

changes in social position of children relative to their parents

inTRAgenerational mobility

changes in social position within a person's adult life

proletarist

Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society (labor,workers, poor

relative poverty

floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society whatever their lifestyle are judged to ve disadvantaged in comparsion towith the nation as a whole

social inequality

a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige or power

social mobility

movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratifcation to another

vertical mobility

movement of an indivdual from one social position to another of a different rank (pogo stick)

wealth

inclusive term encompassing all person's material assests, including land, stocks and other types of property total value of assets minus outstanding debt

functionalist view on social stratification

facilitates filling of social positions

conflict perspective on social classes

group of people who share common interests resulting from their Authority relationships (Karl Max - capitalist - bourgeosie/ruling class; proletarian - labor workers, poor )

Herbert Gans

sociologist that applied functional analysis to the existence of poverty and argues that various segments of society actually benefit from the existence of the poor

Weber's view of Stratification include what components

class
status
power

Conflict view on purpose of social stratisfication

facilitates exploitation

Interactionist view on purpose of social stratisfication

influences people lifestyle

Functionalist attitude towards social inequality

necessary to some extent

conflict attitutde towards social inequality

excessive and growing

interactionist attitude towards social inequality

influences intergroup relationships

functionalist analysis of the wealthy

talented and skilled, creating opportunities for others

conflict analysis of the wealthy

USE THE DOMINANT IDEOLOGY TO FURTHER THEIR OWN INTERESTS

interactionist analysis of the wealthy

EXHIBIT CONSPICuOUS CONSUMPTION and conspicuous leisure (is the spending of money for and the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power )

Benefits of having poor in our society
(Gans's work -functionalist)

1. dirty work -physcially hard will be perform at a low cost 2. creates job for those serbing the poor 3. having poor as deviant upholds conventional social values as norms such as hard work, honesty , thifty 4. existence of poor guarantees higher status of the rich 5. becaue of there lack of political power, poor often absorb cost of social change -can't have mental people live in affluent neghbors - halfway houses set up in low income places

world systems analysis (Wallerstein)

a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industralized ations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and eploited APPROACH - both functionalist and conflict
EX Core- US Semiperiphery - India Periphery - Egypt

exogamous

custom of marrying outside the tribe, family clan or other social unit

social stratification is universal because....

1. society must make certain that its position are filled
2, some position are more important than others
3. important positions must be filled by more qualified people
4. to motivate more qualified people to fill position society must offer greater rewards

downward social mobility

person moving from a higher social class to a lower social class

criticism of Davis Moore thesis

1. prevents the discover of talent and potential
2. provides power to top and weakens those at bottom
3. creates hostility

Davis -Moore Thesis -stratification has benefits

importance / scarcity of personal for certain work >>>higher rewards for important tasks>>>motivation to obtain important position and perform tasks>>>>survival of society. Position at top requires investment of time, money & years of education and therfore should have higher rewards to encourage the best

semiperihery (6 nations)

Panama India China Parkistan Ireland Mexicp

Periphery (7 nations)

Afghan Haiti
Bolivia Philippines
Chad Vietnam
Eqypt

Core (6 nations)

Canada; US; Uk; Germany; France; Japan

chattel slavery

one personowns another; people treated as personal property

meritocracy

rule by chosen on principle of merit (namely intelligence, credentials, and education

Why is the American Dream going down

1. Many workers earning have stalled
2. multiple job holding is up
3. more jobs offer little income
4. many young people are remaining at home
5. many people are out of jobs

income

salaries & wages

proverty line

standard ste by the US governement for the purpose of counting the poor

Characteristic of Third World or Low Income Nations

1.low income ( per capita of less than US $905
2. human resource weakness (based on nutrition, health, education and adult literacy
3. economic vulnerabilty (instability of argriculture production, number of exports of goods and service)

endogamous

marriage within a particular group in accordance with law or custon

blue collar work

skilled or unskilled, manufacturing, mining, construction, mechanical, maintenance (comedy radio called ________)

upward social mobility

change in person's social status resulting in that person receiving a higher position in their status system

white collar

refers to a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work,

20% of US families accoun for what percentage of all income

85%

20% of the world's population account for what percentage of world's total wealth

95%

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