(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
English scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687)
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
Rousseau, discuss the innocence ofman and his corruption by society.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Second Treatise of Government
Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.