What is religion?
a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred
What is profane?
included as an ordinary element of everyday life
What is sacred?
set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
What does a sociological analysis of religion involve?
takes a worldly approach asking why a religion takes a particular form in on society or another and how religious activity effects society as a whole
What are the functions of religion for society?
Preforms vital tasks like uniting people and controlling behavior. Gives life meaning and purpose
How do symbolic interactionists view religion?
Strengthens marriage by giving it and family life sacred meaning. People turn to sacred symbols for comfort
What did Marx believe about religion?
religion serves ruling elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverting people's attention from social inequities
What are the traits of religious fundamentalism?
1. Social cohesion
a. Unites people through a shared system of symbols, values, and norms
b. Establish rules of fair play, organizing life
2. Social control
a. Religious ideas promote conformity
3. Providing meaning and purpose
a. Our brief lives serve some purpose
b. Helps answer some questions
What is a church?
a type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
What is a sect?
a type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society
What is a denomination?
a church independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism
What is a cult?
a religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions
Where is a charismatic leader most likely to be found?
What is the most religious of all high-income nations?
Most live in Europe or the Americas 85% of US and Canada
What is education?
the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
What is tracking?
assigning students to different types of educational programs
What is functional illiteracy?
a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living
What is mainstreaming?
the practice of educating students with special needs in regular classes
What are the manifest and latent functions of schooling?
manifest function is education for a future job, latent is marriage
What would be included in a symbolic interactionist approach to schooling?
how teachers define their students as well as how students think of themselves can become real to everyone and affect students educational performance
What is the main cause of achievement gap between rich and poor children?
rich kids have more resources
Why have public schools been losing teachers in recent years?
What are the most common causes of death in low income nations?
illness due to poverty
What is the greatest preventable cause of death in the US?
In the US, what is the most widespread health problem related to eating?
What is medicine?
the social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health
What is socialized medicine?
a medical care system in which the government own and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians
What is demography?
the study of human population
What is fertility?
incidence of childbearing in s country's population
What is zero population growth?
the rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level
What is a megalopolis.?
vast urban region containing a # of cities and their surrounding suburbs
What is a disposable society?
Resisting the trend toward consumption will boost your bottom line and bolster the environment
What is collectivity?
a large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms
What is conspicuous consumption?
buying things to display power
What are social movements?
an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
What is postmodernity?
views of how we live together in society are nontraditional regarding family, church, and state
Of all high-income nations, which one relies most on a direct-fee market system to pay for medical treatment?
What is the most common way that people in the US pay for medical care?
Why is there a current shortage of nurses?
fewer people are entering the nursing profession because women have a wide range of occupational choices and aren't drawn to the traditionally female occupation
What is the Structural-Function Approach to medicine?
illness is dysfunctional for society because it prevents people from carrying out their daily roles. The sick roles release people who are ill from responsibilities while they try to get well.
What is the Symbolic-Interaction Approach to medicine?
Societies define "health" and "illness" differently according to their living standards. How people define their own health affects how they actually feel.
What is the Social-Conflict and Feminist Approach to medicine?
health is linked to social inequality, with rich people having more access to care than poor people. Capitalist medical care places the drive for profits over the needs of people, treating symptoms rather than addressing poverty and sexism as causes of illness.
How does the crude birth rate of high income nations such as the US compare globally?
less; 2.1 children per woman
What region of the world has the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate?
Africa, specifically the Congo
In high income countries like the US, from what is population growth likely to result?
zero population growth
Worldwide, what is the relationship between average income level and rate of population increase?
higher income = less kids
Throughout history, why have families had many children?
they were a source of labor
What did Thomas Malthus conclude about population growth?
calculated that population would increase in a geometric progression, doubling 2 4 8 16 population will soar out of control. Food production would increase, but in arithmetic progression 2 3 4 5 because of limited farmland.
Compare and contrast snowbelt cities like Chicago with sunbelt cities like Houston.
Sunbelt = start of urbanization, in the S & W with rapid growth. People migrate from the Snowbelt, not as much land.
What is Tonnies concepts of Gemeinschaft ?
type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition
What is Durkheim's concept of mechanical solidarity?
bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values
What is Tonnies concept of Gesellschaft?
a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest
What is Durheim's concept of organic solidarity?
bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values
What is happening to the average temperature of the planet?
What is collective behavior?
activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous
Why is collective behavior difficult to study?
behavior is diverse, behavior is variable, & transitory
What is a mob?
a highly emotional crowd that pursues a violent or destructive goal
What is a riot?
a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undirected
What is gossip?
rumor about peoples personal affairs
What are rumors?
unconfirmed information that people spread informally, often by word of mouth
What are fads?
an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically
What is fashion?
a social pattern favored by a large number of people
What is relative deprivation?
perceived disadvantaged arising from some specific comparison, French knowing that they could progress from social standing
What are the stages of social movements?
Coalescence- defining itself and developing a strategy
Bureaucratization- be a political force
When and where does social change occur?
All the time and everywhere
What are the consequences of social change?
farm communities decline
How did Tonnies describe the loss of modernity?
a progressive loss of Gemeinschaft
How did Marx understand the concept of modernity?
modern society was synonymous with capitalism, Industrial Revolution as capitalist revolution