civics study guide

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1. What government body has the power to declare war?

Congress

Why did the Cuban Missile Crisis start, who was involved and what was the result?

It started because the US had missiles in turkey, Russia and the US were involved and it ended in both countries removing their missiles.

Who was Susan B Anthony?

A leader in the women's suffrage movement

4. Describe the first amendment and the freedoms it allows.

Freedom of: religion, speech, press and political activity

5. Read the first paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, and the entire Gettysburg Address and be able to differentiate between them

The Declaration of independence
• The 13 colonies need to separate from Great Britain and have the right to become their own nation.
• All men are created equal and have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
• Government exists to represent the power of the people and when a government fails to do so it should be overthrown.
US Constitution
• We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

• This means that the purpose of the constitution is to insure justice, tranquility common defense and general welfare for our nation

The Gettysburg Address
• A dedication to the soldiers that died in the battle
• Saying that we need to continue what they haven't finished

6. Who were the Anti-Federalists and what affect did they have on the US Constitution

The Antifederalists were against a strong central government, which is why the US constitution gives individual states rights. influenced the adoption of the bill of rights

7. Describe the Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I have a Dream" speech and explain its purpose

• Martin Luther King basically said that when the constitution said "All men are created equal" and had the rights to "life", "liberty" and "the pursuit of happiness." Black people got the short end of the stick.
• He said the that black people should fight for their rights in a peaceful dignified way as opposed to violence
• He said that Civil Rights leaders would not be satisfied until there was no more segregation and discrimination.
• He told everyone to go home knowing that there would be change
• He had a dream that the discrimination would end and people of different races would get along
• The purpose of this speech was to influence and encourage change and create hope.

8. What is Capitalism, How does it run (continue to exist), what are it's effects?

• Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profits.
• With this kind of independence people can either rise to the top or sink. In a good economy such as the 1950's the middle class boomed which is ideal but in a bad economy like we have today the middle class shrinks and a large percent a poor with a small percent of the money and a small percent are really rich with a large percent of the money.

9. Be able to recall the first ten amendments of the US Constitution (Bill of Rights) and what rights are guaranteed.

1. Protects the freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the government
2. Protects an individual's right to bear arms
3. Prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war time
4. Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause
5. Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy
6. Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel
7. Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law
8. Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment
9. Protects rights not enumerated in the constitution.
10. Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution

10. Explain what foreign policy is and what groups or individuals are able to shape and decide foreign policy.

Strategies that help protect our interests and goals in other countries. Such as embargo, diplomacy and war. The Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is the President's chief advisor on foreign affairs. Only congress can declare war.

What was the first man-made satellite in the world and what country developed it? What country was the first to land on the moon?

Sputnik was the first man made satellite which was developed by the Soviet Union. The United States was the first to land on the moon.

How is the President elected in the U.S

Every four years there is a presidential election. Every US citizen 18 or older can vote. There is a thing called an electoral college. Each state had a certain number of electoral representatives based on its population. The electoral representative represent their states vote. Whichever candidate has the most votes from the electoral college wins.

What case ruled on abortion and what was the ruling?

Roe. V Wade. The ruling was that laws against abortion were unconstitutional and abortions were legal before the later stages of pregnancy and that states could have regulations on abortions.

Which American document is the "wall of separation" of church and state first mentioned?

The Bill of Rights

Name 3 types of taxes and the effects each has on rich and poor individuals. Which system does the U.S have.

Income tax, property tax, sales tax
For income tax the more you make the more you pay and vice versa so the rich have to pay a lot and the poor pay very little. For property tax it is based on the value of the property you own so in general rich people would have to pay more than poor people. For sales tax it is a percentage of something you buy so the more expensive the item is the more tax you pay.

. What is the purpose of the 4th of July besides fireworks and celebration?

It celebrates the day our country became independent which is why it is also called independence day.

Define in general terms what the US Constitution is for out country.

It is a set of guidelines for the laws and rights or people.

How are congressmen elected?

Congress is made up of House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state has two senators and the population of that state votes for. The number of representatives each state has is based on the census. You vote for representatives based on your region. Senators serve 6 year terms and Representatives serve 2-year terms.

What are the three branches of government and what are they each responsible for?

The legislative branch, which includes Congress and state legislatures, write the laws. The executive branch, which includes the president and state governors, implement and enforce the laws.

The judicial branch, which includes the Supreme Court and other courts, determine whether law is consistent with pre-existing laws and whether laws have been violated

What is the purpose of the Supreme Court and what kind of power does it have? Who nominates those judges and how are they approved?

The purpose of the Supreme Court is to interpret pre existing laws. The president nominates judges and they approved by congress.

How many states are there in the US?

50

What is the US capital?

Washington D.C

What is the national anthem of the US?

The Starr-Spangled banner

How many senators are there in congress? How many representatives how often are they each elected?

There are 100 senators who are elected every 6 years and 435 representatives who are elected every 2 years.

. Describe the Great Depression, how it happened, the Presidents involved and what was put in place to take the country out of it.

The beginning of the great depression was the stock market crash of 1929. Banks were not insured then so people lost all their money. Herbert Clark Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt were both presidents during the great depression. FDR's New Deal and WWII got us out of the depression.

. What issue was at the heat of Stephen A. Douglas' and Abraham Lincoln's Debates?

Slavery

Provide Examples of what the federal, state, and local governments able to do and are responsible for?

Federal government makes laws that all states must follow and works internationally to make agreements. State government makes laws that every body in the state has to follow and deals with the responsibility of the state such as roads and taxes. Local government were all people have to follow the laws and taxes in that local area

28. Who were the puritans and what did they believe?

They were a group who wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual and traditions in the Church of England

What is the Federal Reserve and why/when was it created? How many branches are there?

The Federal Reserve is a national banking system, which controls the U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country. It was created by Woodrow Wilson in 1913 to strengthen they way banks were run and adjust the amount of money in circulation. There are 25 branches.

Who were the first 5 presidents of the United States and who were the last 3?

1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson. 4. James Madison 5. James Monroe. 42. William J Clinton 43. George W. Bush 44. Barack Obama

What is the minimum voting age in the US?

18

What is a veto and when is it used?

All legislation must be passed through both houses of congress and then presented to the president. If with in 10 days the president returns the bill unsigned with his objections that is a veto which can only be overridden if congress votes for the bill with at least two thirds majority in favor it. Veto is Latin for "forbid".

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