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Use LEARN to master spelling and become familiar to recognition level of of action, origin, and insertion. (interesting notes are in parenthesis)

orbicularis oculi

A: Closure of eyelids. O: maxilla, frontal bone. I: same (around eye, in lacrimal area)

orbicularis oris

A: Closes and protrudes lips. Compresses lips against teeth (whistling, forming letters during speech) O: maxilla, mandible I: lips

masseter

A: Elevates mandible and slightly protracts it. (clenching, chewing (mashing) food.) O: zygomatic bone, maxilla I: angle and ramus of mandible

sternocleidomastoid

A: Contraction of one side (side to side rotation of head). Key landmark in the neck. O: sternum, clavicle. I: temporal, occipital (mastoid process)

platysma

A: Draws down the lower lip and angle of mouth, tenses skin of neck; helps depress mandible (Tenses the neck when shaving/frowning.) O: fascia covering pectoralis major and deltoid. I: lower mandible

pectoralis major

A: adducts the humerus, extends, rotates arm medially, elevates thorax. O: clavicle, sternum, cart. of ribs. I: humerus

biceps brachii

A: flexes and supinates the forearm. O: scapula. I: radius

brachialis

A: flexes elbow. O:humerus. I: ulna

triceps brachii

A: Extends forearm and helps stabilize shoulder. The only muscle on the posterior upper arm. O: scapula and humerus. I: ulna

deltoid

A: flexion, rotation, abduction, extension of the arm (swinging while you walk). O: scapula, clavicle. I: humerus

trapezius

A: supports or depresses scapula and helps move arm. O: occipital bone; spines of C7 and all Ts. I: clavicle, scapula

latissimus dorsi

A: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates the arm, draws shoulder donward and backward (power stroke - hammering, swimming, rowing). O: spinous processes of lower T and all Ls, ilium. I: humerus

rectus abdominus

A: Compresses the abdominal cavity and flexes the vertebral column. (Abs used in situps, form six pack). O: pubic symphysis. I: xiphoid process, ribs 5-7

external oblique

A: Compresses the abdominal cavity. Laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column. (trunk rotation). O: The lower 8 ribs I: iliac crest, linea alba

diaphragm

A: Flattens on contraction increasing the vertical dimensions of the thorax (inspiration). Assists with return of venous blood and lymth to the heart. O: xiphoid process, lower six costal cartilages (ribs), L1-3. I: central tendon

gluteus maximus

A: Extends and rotates thigh, assist in raising trunk from flexed position. Adduction of the hip. (Maintains upright posture. Active mainly during strenuous activities such as running, jumping, and climbing.) O: sacrum,coccyx, ilium. I: femur, iliotibial tract.

sartorius

A: Flexes, rotates, abducts hip joint. Flexes torso toward leg. Assists in rotation of knee. (Helps move femur in many directions. Used in yoga-style sitting. The longest muscle in the body.) O:ilium I: tibia

rectus femoris

A: Extends leg at the knee, flexes thigh at the hip. (Powerful knee extensor used in sports and rising from sitting. One of the four quadriceps femoris muscles). O: ilium I: patella

vastus lateralis

A: Extends the leg at the knee and draws patella laterally. (The most lateral of the quadriceps femoris, trouble here called runner's knee.) O: femur (lateral) I: patella (and indirectly to tibia)

vastus medialis

A: Extends the leg at the knee and draws the patella medially. (The most medial of the quadriceps femoris group.) O: femur (medial) I: patella (indirectly to tibia)

biceps femoris

A: Flexes and laterally rotates knee joint and extends thigh. (Prime mover in hip extension and knee flexion. The most lateral of the hamstring group.) O: ischium, femur I: fibula, tibia

semitendinosus

A: Flexes and rotates leg at knee joint, extends thigh at hip. (Slows down the leg at the end of its swing.) O: ischial tuberosity I: tibia

semimembranosus

A: Flexes and rotates leg at knee joint, extends thigh at hip. (The most medial hamstring). O: ischial tuberosity. I: tibia

soleus

A: Plantar flexion. Stabilizes the leg over the foot. (Is under the gastrocnemius.) O: fibula, tibia I: calcaneous

gastrocnemius

A: Plantar flexion of the ankle, flexion of the knee. (point foot, bend knee.) O: femur I: calcaneous

occipitofrontalis

A. Pulls the scalp forward and backward and assists in wrinkling the forehead and raising the eyebrows. Connects the occipital belly and the frontal belly via the galea aponeurotica. O: Occipital bone, I: frontal bone.

frontalis

A: wrinkling forehead, raising eyebrows. O: Galea aponeurotica. I: Fascia of facial muscles (under eyebrows).

occipitalis

A: pulls scalp forward and backward O: occipital and temporal bones I: Galea aponeurotica (notice O/I reversed for the forehead area, GA is not the I point for both.)

temporoparietalis

A: raises ears and tightens scalp. O: Galea aponeurotica. I: Fascia above auricle

temporalis

A: Elevates and retracts mandible, assists in side to side movement. Keeps jaw at rest. O: temporal bone I: mandible

zygomaticus major

A: Draws angle of mouth upward and outward. O: zygomatic bone. I: mouth muscles esp. orbicularis oris

brachioradialis

A: Flexes the elbow, pronation and supination of forearm. (hammering). O: humerus I: radius

gracilis

A: Adducts thigh at hip joint, flexes leg at knee joint. Medial rotation. (Sore after horseback riding). O: pubis. I: tibia

tensor fasciae latae

A: Abduction, rotation, and flexion of thigh. Keeps the ITBT taut. Stabilizes hip. (Braces the knee and hip when walking; mostly tendon, the muscle part looks like a pocket). O: ilium (iliac crest). I: iliotibal tract, tibia.

iliotibial tract

A: Not a muscle. Is an important band of collagen fibers that extend along the lateral surface of the thigh. I: tibia

adductor longus

A: Adducts thigh, assists flexion and medial rotation. (The most anterior of the adductor muscles.) O: pubis I: femur

adductor magnus

A. Adducts thigh, assists flexion and medial rotation. (The largest of the adductor group. The most anterior of the adductor muscles.) O: pubis and ischium I: femur

tibialis anterior

A: dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot. (Superficial muscle of the shin. Irritation causes shin splints. Paralysis causes foot dragging.) O: tibia. I: cuneiform and first metatarsal bones.

fibularis (Peroneus) longus

A: plantar flexion and eversion of the foot. (Found on the lateral surface of the proximal half of the lower leg (top outer part) along the fibula.) O: fibula, I: cuneiform and first metatarsal.

calcaneous tendon

A: same as gastrocnemius and soleus. (Not a muscle, important tendon that connects gastrocnemius and soleus to calcaneous.) O: G&S calf muscles. I: calcaneus bone.

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