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Oral Drug Administration

Most common and easiest but the most complicated in terms of bloodstream entry. Drug must be soluble in stomach fluid and be permeable to intestine lining. Disadvantages of oral administration are stomach irritation, difficulty predicting how much will be absorbed, and the inability of the drug to withstand stomach acid.

3 types of Injection (using a hypodermic syringe)

1) Intravenous
2) Subcutaneous
3) Intramuscular

Intravenous Injection

Administered into the vein; Quickest Entry into the bloodstream, making drug action felt quickly.

Subcutaneous Injection

Injection under the skin in the fatty layer just under the external skin layer, called "skin popping" by narcotic users.

Intramuscular injection

Injection into the muscle; quicker in terms of effects than subcutaneous.

Inhalation

Quickest way to feel the effects of psychoactive drugs.

Topical/Transdermal

Applied directly to the skin; not commonly used because the skin does not absorb most drugs well.

Psychoactive drugs

Drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behavior. They influence the functioning of the brain and hence our behavior and experience.

illicit drugs means?

illegal drugs - drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal. Licit drugs are the legal.

Drug Dependence

A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual's life.

Drug

A chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.

Instrumental Drug Use

Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug for a specific purpose other than getting "high." A person is taking a drug with a specific socially approved goal in mind. Like staying awake longer, fall asleep more quickly or recover from an illness.

Recreational Drug Use

Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug only to get "high" or achieve some pleasurable effect.

Drug Misuse

Drug taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used inappropriately. It is the unintentional or inappropriate use of a drug for other than what or how it was intended.

Drug Abuse

Drug taking behaviors resulting in some form of physical, mental or social impairment. Usually involves recreational goals.

Shaman/Shamanism

A healer whose diagnosis or treatment of patients is based at least in part on trances. These trances are frequently induced by hallucinogenic drugs.

Ebers Papyrus

An Egyptian document, dated appox. 1500 B.C. containing more than eight hundred presciptions for common ailments and diseases.

Neuroscience is what?

The scientific study of the nervous system, undertaken as a collaborative effort among researchers from many scientific disciplines.

By definition, a chemical substance would be considered a drug if what?

It intoxicated you

When looking at ancient historical records, it appears that many drugs first were used for

Medicinal or religious reasons

The first piece of major legislation regarding drug regulations was:

The Pure Food and Drug Act

The Act that was considered the "Bill of Rights for Alcoholics" was

The Hughes Act

Which Act created the schedule of drugs that is still in use today?

Controlled Substance Act

Since 1970, marijuana has been officially classified as a controlled substance in the same category as

Heroin

Cases of drug abuse involve:

Licit or illicit drugs

The most frequently used drug on a daily basis by high school students is what?

Nicotine

Until 1903, Coca-Cola contained which psychoactive drug?

Cocaine?

A dose-response curve is generally shaped as an:

S

As dose level rises, it is likely that the effect produced by the drug will do what?

Rise as well

Alcohol is in what classification?

Depressant

Caffeine is in what classification?

Stimulant

Nicotine is in what classification?

Stimulant

Opium is in what classification?

Narcotics

LSD is in what classification?

Hallucinogens

Spray Paint is in what classification?

Inhalants

Barbiturates are in what classification?

Depressants

PCP is in what classification?

Hallucinogens

Mescaline in in what classification?

Hallucinogens

Cocaine is in what classification?

Stimulants

What does the downward continuum of arousal levels induced by depressants look like?

-Normal
-Relief from anxiety
-Disinhibition
-Sedation
-Sleep
-General Anesthesia
-Coma
-Death

Depressants slow down the what?

Central Nervous System

From depressants or barbiturates, at a low dose, the effects are relaxation and euphoria which are derived chiefly from a dis-inhibition of the what?

Cerebral cortex, in which normal inhibitory influences from the cortex are reduced.

The effective dose (ED) of a drug depends upon

What drug effect is being observed and what percentage of the population you have specified

When reporting the ED50 of a drug, the "50" refers to what?

50% of the test population

DAWN stands for what?

Drug Abuse Warning Network

Physical dependence requires the presence of

A set of physical withdrawal symptoms. Physical dependence is a state of functional adaptation to a drug in which the presence of a foreign chemical becomes normal and necessary, and the absence of the drug would present an abnormal state.

Drugs are administered in what 7ways?

1) Mouth
2) Rectum
3) Lungs (Inhalation)
4) Injection
5) Transdermal
6) Intranasal
7) Buccal Administration

Rectum administration is used when?

If person is vomiting, unconscious or cannot swallow

What effects the action of a drug?

The route of administration, the dose, and the form of the dose (liquid, powder, etc)

You can inhale what two things?

Gases (nitrous oxide, crack) - Gases penetrate the cell linings of respiratory tract easily and rapidly with fast absorption because of the closeness of blood vessels.

Non-gaseous or Particles (Tobacco, marijuana) - that particles are carried inthe smokeandthe rate of absorption is not known.

Bioavailability (which means the extent/the rate at which a drug enters the circulation and reaches the site of action for that drug) is influence by what four things?

Absorption, Distribution, metabolism, and elimination

Absorption refers to what?

Refers to the movement of drug molecules from the site of entry through the various cell boundaries, to the site of action. How many cell layers the drugs must pass through affects the absorption.

Distribution refers to what?

Refers to how the molecules move about the body. Some drugs are water soluble and are distributed in body fluid (example:alcohol), other drugs bind to lipids and pass in and out of body tissues; some drugs bind to protein molecules and the body finds them difficult to metabolize or excrete

Metabolism means what?

AKA biotransformation. Occurs in liver. Those drugs that are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract (like alcohol) are carried first to the liver (called the first pass metabolism).

Elimination happens where?

Most common is through kidneys, but also through lungs and sweat glands

Buccal Administration

The drug is absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth (between the gum and the cheek).

The faster the absorption of the drug, the more intense the what?

the high

The faster the absorption, the what?

the shorter the duration of action

The effects of drugs administered through inhalation are felt _____?

almost immediately - a few seconds - and, like injection, have a short duration period.

NT GABA

relates to inhibitory factors and slows communication.

NT Norepinephrine

associated with arousal reactions and moods.

Dopamine

associated with feelings of pleasure.

Seratonin

associated with feelings of anxiety, depression, and aggressiveness.

Acetylcholine

associated with arousal reactions or inhibitory factors.

Drugs activate the pleasure/reward center of the brain, which is made up of what (2)?

VTA Ventral Tegmental Area and Nucleus Accumbens

Abuse potential is generally related to the drug's what?

Speed of action and how long the effects last. Effects that are felt quickly also wear off quickly, having a high potential for abuse

Schedule I

High potential for abuse.
No accepted medical use.
Research use only.
Separate records must be maintained, and the drugs must be stored in secure vaults.
HEROIN, LSD, MESCALINE, MARIJUANA, PCP

Schedule II

SAME AS schedule I, accept for some accepted medical use.
High potential for abuse.
Some accepted medical use
Written prescription in ink/no renewals allowed
CODEINE, MORPHINE, COCAINE, METHADONE, AMPHETAMINES, SHORT ACTING BARBITUATES

Schedule III

Some potential for abuse
Accepted Medical Use (which could lead to low to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence)
Oral or written prescription
ANABOLIC STEROIDS, MOST BARBITURATES OR LONG LASTING BARBITURATES AND KETAMINE.

Schedule IV

Low potential for abuse/physical dependence
High risk for psychological dependence
Accepted medical use
Oral or written prescription
XANAX, BARBITAL, ANTIANXIETY DRUGS, SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS (VALIUM, KLONOPIN)

Schedule V

Minimal abuse potential
Widespread medical use
Minimal controls for selling and dispensing
PRESCRIPTION COUGH MEDICINES NOT CONTAINING CODEINE, LAXATIVES

Psychological Dependence

is when the individual has a strong desire to continue to use the drug for emotional reasons and is related to the rewarding effects of the drug. There are no physical withdrawal symptoms with the discontinuation of use.

Ketamine

A dissociative anesthetic hallucinogen related to PCP

Hallucinogens are broken into four groups. What are they?

The first three relate to the chemical similarity btwn the particular drug and one of three major NT's: serotonin, norepinephrine, or acetylcholine. The 4th is synthetic hallucinogens (like PCP and Ketamine), which bear little resemblance to any known NT.

LSD belongs to which group?

the serotonin group

Mescaline belongs to which group?

Norepinepherine

MDMA is what?

Ecstasy - which is a synthetic (amphetamine related) norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug.

Psilocybin belongs to which group?

The serotonin group - shrooms.

Narcotics

A general term technically referring to opiate-related or opiate-derived drugs - has powerful analgesic properties; they greatly reduce feelings of pain.

Opiates

Any ingredients of opium or chemical derivatives of these ingredients. OPIUM, MORPHINE, CODEINE, THEBAINE, HEROIN.

Opium

An analgesic and euphoriant drug acquired form the dried juice of the opium poppy.

The term narcotic comes from the Greek word meaning what?

Stupor (which means a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility)

Morphine, codeine, and thebaine are all natural compnents of what?

Opium

Synthetic opiates are what?

Are opiate-like in their actions; Darvon is an example

All three categories of narcotic drugs share the following common feature:

Producing Analgesia

In 1500's, a medicinal drink was introduced, containing opium, wine, and an assortment of spices. This drink became known as what?

Laudanum

In 1800's, opium was appealed principally to whom?

women

The greater potency of heroin over morphine is due to the following property:

Its greater fat solubility

Pinpoint pupils is a term referring to

Pupil constriction due to an acute affect of heroin intake; its an important diagnostic sign for narcotic use

Naloxsone has what kind of relationship to opiate drugs?

Antagonist

The term psychedelic literally means what?

Mind expanding

A hallucinogen that is chemically similar to norepinephrine is

Mescaline

Synthsthesia refers to what?

An intermingling of senses, particularly sight and hearing

A drug often referred to as ecstasy is what?

MDMA

While ecstasy is categorized in many texts as a hallucinogen, it technically is a what?

Hallucinogenic-amphetamine

Present day marijuana contains what?

4% THC

Marijuana is to hashish as

leaf is to resin

What is a physiological effects of Marijuana?

dilation of blood vessels in the cornea

A general apathy and indifference to long-range plans is a marijuana effect often referred to as

amotivational hypothesis

Glues, solvent and aerosol inhalation produces signs of what?

CNS depression

Depressant/sedative hypnotics are what?

Central Nervous System Depressants - include alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Usually taken orally. Binds to GABA (inhibitory) receptors resulting in sedation.

In the stimulant class, what part of the body is increased?

the CNS - class includes cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines & methylphenidate (ritalin)

Cocaine is taken how?

powdered cocaine can be snorted, can be liquified and injected intraveneously, or can be smoked as freebase or, more often, as crack. Amphetamines can be taken orally, injected intraveneously. Ritalin is taken orally.

Snorting methamphetamines last how long?

3 to 5 minutes; oral ingestion produces effects in 15 to 20 minutes and can last 8 to 24 hours

Cocaine affects what NT's?

Dopamine, norepinepherine, and serotonin. It blocks the reuptake of dopamine increasing the amount & prolonging the dopamine effect.

Amphetamines direct the release of _____ and ____ and blocking of the _____ creates a euphoric effect.

dopamine; norepinephrine; reuptake

What does formication mean?

Hallucinated sensation that insects or snakes are crawling over the skin; a common side-effect of extensive use of cocaine or amphetamines.

Withdrawal from amphetamines are not life threatening except

for the potential for suicide.

LSD & MDMA can be taken orally or _____.

smoked.

LSD has no what?

Withdrawal or tolerance, but risk from one use is high.

The desired effects for Hallucinogens/dissociatives are what?

increased awareness of sensory input; blurring boundaries between self and environment; obtaining special insights.

Ketamine can include a frightening experience of complete sensory detachment, explained as what

near death experience, paranoia, boredom, & possible coma

LSD is structurally related to what?

Seratonin & many of the behavioral effects are probably related to their binding to the serotonin receptors.

Cannabinoids/cannabinols category includes what?

marijuana, hashish and THC

Hashish means what?

An extract of the cannabis plant, containing psychoactive resins.

The effects of cannabinols are believed to be caused by what?

The binding of the drug at specific THC receptor sites in the brain.

What syndrome is linked to marijuana use?

Amotivational syndrome.

Inhalants are drugs that mainly consist of chemicals

that can be legally purchased and that are normally used for nonrecreational purposes; include industrial solvents and aerosol sprays.

There does not seem to be withdrawal symptoms from Inhalants, which indicates there is not what?

Physical dependence.

Anabolic steroids resemble what?

the male sex hormone, testosterone. They are synthetic illicit drugs that are used to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance.

Some anabolic steroid are approved for medical use and are classified as

Schedule III drugs

What does "stacking" mean?

Occurs when combining oral and injectable steroids. Tolerance does not exist with steroids; there is withdrawal however.

Valium, Librium & Halcion are all what?

Benzodiazepines

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