Oral Drug Administration
Most common and easiest but the most complicated in terms of bloodstream entry. Drug must be soluble in stomach fluid and be permeable to intestine lining. Disadvantages of oral administration are stomach irritation, difficulty predicting how much will be absorbed, and the inability of the drug to withstand stomach acid.
Administered into the vein; Quickest Entry into the bloodstream, making drug action felt quickly.
Injection under the skin in the fatty layer just under the external skin layer, called "skin popping" by narcotic users.
Applied directly to the skin; not commonly used because the skin does not absorb most drugs well.
Drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behavior. They influence the functioning of the brain and hence our behavior and experience.
illicit drugs means?
illegal drugs - drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal. Licit drugs are the legal.
A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual's life.
A chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.
Instrumental Drug Use
Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug for a specific purpose other than getting "high." A person is taking a drug with a specific socially approved goal in mind. Like staying awake longer, fall asleep more quickly or recover from an illness.
Recreational Drug Use
Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug only to get "high" or achieve some pleasurable effect.
Drug taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used inappropriately. It is the unintentional or inappropriate use of a drug for other than what or how it was intended.
Drug taking behaviors resulting in some form of physical, mental or social impairment. Usually involves recreational goals.
A healer whose diagnosis or treatment of patients is based at least in part on trances. These trances are frequently induced by hallucinogenic drugs.
An Egyptian document, dated appox. 1500 B.C. containing more than eight hundred presciptions for common ailments and diseases.
Neuroscience is what?
The scientific study of the nervous system, undertaken as a collaborative effort among researchers from many scientific disciplines.
When looking at ancient historical records, it appears that many drugs first were used for
Medicinal or religious reasons
Since 1970, marijuana has been officially classified as a controlled substance in the same category as
What does the downward continuum of arousal levels induced by depressants look like?
-Relief from anxiety
From depressants or barbiturates, at a low dose, the effects are relaxation and euphoria which are derived chiefly from a dis-inhibition of the what?
Cerebral cortex, in which normal inhibitory influences from the cortex are reduced.
The effective dose (ED) of a drug depends upon
What drug effect is being observed and what percentage of the population you have specified
Physical dependence requires the presence of
A set of physical withdrawal symptoms. Physical dependence is a state of functional adaptation to a drug in which the presence of a foreign chemical becomes normal and necessary, and the absence of the drug would present an abnormal state.
Drugs are administered in what 7ways?
3) Lungs (Inhalation)
7) Buccal Administration
What effects the action of a drug?
The route of administration, the dose, and the form of the dose (liquid, powder, etc)
You can inhale what two things?
Gases (nitrous oxide, crack) - Gases penetrate the cell linings of respiratory tract easily and rapidly with fast absorption because of the closeness of blood vessels.
Non-gaseous or Particles (Tobacco, marijuana) - that particles are carried inthe smokeandthe rate of absorption is not known.
Bioavailability (which means the extent/the rate at which a drug enters the circulation and reaches the site of action for that drug) is influence by what four things?
Absorption, Distribution, metabolism, and elimination
Absorption refers to what?
Refers to the movement of drug molecules from the site of entry through the various cell boundaries, to the site of action. How many cell layers the drugs must pass through affects the absorption.
Distribution refers to what?
Refers to how the molecules move about the body. Some drugs are water soluble and are distributed in body fluid (example:alcohol), other drugs bind to lipids and pass in and out of body tissues; some drugs bind to protein molecules and the body finds them difficult to metabolize or excrete
Metabolism means what?
AKA biotransformation. Occurs in liver. Those drugs that are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract (like alcohol) are carried first to the liver (called the first pass metabolism).
The drug is absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth (between the gum and the cheek).
The effects of drugs administered through inhalation are felt _____?
almost immediately - a few seconds - and, like injection, have a short duration period.
Drugs activate the pleasure/reward center of the brain, which is made up of what (2)?
VTA Ventral Tegmental Area and Nucleus Accumbens
Abuse potential is generally related to the drug's what?
Speed of action and how long the effects last. Effects that are felt quickly also wear off quickly, having a high potential for abuse
High potential for abuse.
No accepted medical use.
Research use only.
Separate records must be maintained, and the drugs must be stored in secure vaults.
HEROIN, LSD, MESCALINE, MARIJUANA, PCP
SAME AS schedule I, accept for some accepted medical use.
High potential for abuse.
Some accepted medical use
Written prescription in ink/no renewals allowed
CODEINE, MORPHINE, COCAINE, METHADONE, AMPHETAMINES, SHORT ACTING BARBITUATES
Some potential for abuse
Accepted Medical Use (which could lead to low to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence)
Oral or written prescription
ANABOLIC STEROIDS, MOST BARBITURATES OR LONG LASTING BARBITURATES AND KETAMINE.
Low potential for abuse/physical dependence
High risk for psychological dependence
Accepted medical use
Oral or written prescription
XANAX, BARBITAL, ANTIANXIETY DRUGS, SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS (VALIUM, KLONOPIN)
Minimal abuse potential
Widespread medical use
Minimal controls for selling and dispensing
PRESCRIPTION COUGH MEDICINES NOT CONTAINING CODEINE, LAXATIVES
is when the individual has a strong desire to continue to use the drug for emotional reasons and is related to the rewarding effects of the drug. There are no physical withdrawal symptoms with the discontinuation of use.
Hallucinogens are broken into four groups. What are they?
The first three relate to the chemical similarity btwn the particular drug and one of three major NT's: serotonin, norepinephrine, or acetylcholine. The 4th is synthetic hallucinogens (like PCP and Ketamine), which bear little resemblance to any known NT.
MDMA is what?
Ecstasy - which is a synthetic (amphetamine related) norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug.
A general term technically referring to opiate-related or opiate-derived drugs - has powerful analgesic properties; they greatly reduce feelings of pain.
Any ingredients of opium or chemical derivatives of these ingredients. OPIUM, MORPHINE, CODEINE, THEBAINE, HEROIN.
The term narcotic comes from the Greek word meaning what?
Stupor (which means a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility)
In 1500's, a medicinal drink was introduced, containing opium, wine, and an assortment of spices. This drink became known as what?
The greater potency of heroin over morphine is due to the following property:
Its greater fat solubility
Pinpoint pupils is a term referring to
Pupil constriction due to an acute affect of heroin intake; its an important diagnostic sign for narcotic use
While ecstasy is categorized in many texts as a hallucinogen, it technically is a what?
A general apathy and indifference to long-range plans is a marijuana effect often referred to as
Depressant/sedative hypnotics are what?
Central Nervous System Depressants - include alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Usually taken orally. Binds to GABA (inhibitory) receptors resulting in sedation.
In the stimulant class, what part of the body is increased?
the CNS - class includes cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines & methylphenidate (ritalin)
Cocaine is taken how?
powdered cocaine can be snorted, can be liquified and injected intraveneously, or can be smoked as freebase or, more often, as crack. Amphetamines can be taken orally, injected intraveneously. Ritalin is taken orally.
Snorting methamphetamines last how long?
3 to 5 minutes; oral ingestion produces effects in 15 to 20 minutes and can last 8 to 24 hours
Cocaine affects what NT's?
Dopamine, norepinepherine, and serotonin. It blocks the reuptake of dopamine increasing the amount & prolonging the dopamine effect.
Amphetamines direct the release of _____ and ____ and blocking of the _____ creates a euphoric effect.
dopamine; norepinephrine; reuptake
What does formication mean?
Hallucinated sensation that insects or snakes are crawling over the skin; a common side-effect of extensive use of cocaine or amphetamines.
The desired effects for Hallucinogens/dissociatives are what?
increased awareness of sensory input; blurring boundaries between self and environment; obtaining special insights.
Ketamine can include a frightening experience of complete sensory detachment, explained as what
near death experience, paranoia, boredom, & possible coma
LSD is structurally related to what?
Seratonin & many of the behavioral effects are probably related to their binding to the serotonin receptors.
The effects of cannabinols are believed to be caused by what?
The binding of the drug at specific THC receptor sites in the brain.
Inhalants are drugs that mainly consist of chemicals
that can be legally purchased and that are normally used for nonrecreational purposes; include industrial solvents and aerosol sprays.
There does not seem to be withdrawal symptoms from Inhalants, which indicates there is not what?
Anabolic steroids resemble what?
the male sex hormone, testosterone. They are synthetic illicit drugs that are used to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance.
What does "stacking" mean?
Occurs when combining oral and injectable steroids. Tolerance does not exist with steroids; there is withdrawal however.