refers to individuals linked together by one or more social relationships CONNECTING us to larger society.
-important b/c get us jobs or favors
As Networks move from micro,meso,¯o
-interactions become more formal as we move up.
consist of 2 or more individuals purposefully relating to each other.
Norms affect Social interactions
Shapes the way ppl percieve the circumstances.
-tel us what is right & proper behavior.
Social Significant of social space
needs to be comfortable or proper varies w/ the culture settings, gender, status, & social context.
Rational Choice Theory explains the Interaction Process by
-Expectation of Reciprocity ( a mutual exchange of favors):getting back what you expected.
-if the benefits of the interaction are high & cost is low, the interaction is valued.
Symbolic Interaction Theory explains the interaction process by
focuses on how individual interprets the situations & how it affects their actions.
Study formation of ground rules underlying social interaction & ppl's responses to violation of norms.
individuals perform according to societies script for the situation; they take consideration how their actions will influence others.
-certain role you are expected to say
(ie) hi, how are you...... good, thank you
the behavior safest w. casual acquaintances b/c it is scripted & acted to the public to create an impression.
letting your feelings show & behaving in ways that might be unacceptable for others audiences.
Position you hold in the social world.
-defines how we interact w/ others & how others react to us in a specific situation.
-each individual hold many status, comes with roles that you play.
(ie) sister, mother, brother, employee
often assigned at birth & doesn't change durning an individuals lifetime.
(ie) gender, race, ethnicity
chosen or earned by decisions one makes & sometimes by personal ability.
(ie) higher education
main status(takes priority)
-at a particular time or under certain circumstances one of the individual status will become most important & take priority over others.
-Defines how each individual in an interaction is expected to act.
-Every status in your network includes certain behaviors & obligations as you carry out the expected behaviors, rights, & obligations of status.
-with each Status you have to play a Role.
-ppl have many roles
tension between roles within one of the status
Conflict between the roles of 2 or more status.
2 or more ppl who interact w/ each other b/c of shared common interest, goal, experiences, & needs.
-members feel they belong behavior & engage in structured interaction patters
-establishes own goals.
the state of normlessness
-rules breakdown under extreme stress from rapid social change.
Durkheim study on suicide
found that suicide rates were not related to things like alcoholism, race, heredity,etc. but were related to changes in collective sentiments like depression. found there were three main types of suicide:
-anomic: when a society or one of its parts are in disorder & lack norms for social behavior.
-egoistic: when indvi. fees little social bond to a group.
-altruistic: indvi. is willing to die for a group.
close contacts & lasting personal relationships
-provide sense of belonging & shared identity.
formal, impersonal, business like relationships.
composed of members who act as role models & establish standards against which all members measure their conduct.
one to which an individual feels a sense of loyalty & belonging.
one to which an individual does not belong.
Specific types of large formal organizations that have the purpose of maximizing efficiency.
division of labor
formal rules & regulations
emphasis on rationality & efficiency to reach goals.
Problems associated with Bureaucracies