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Social Network

refers to individuals linked together by one or more social relationships CONNECTING us to larger society.
-important b/c get us jobs or favors

As Networks move from micro,meso,&macro

get larger
-interactions become more formal as we move up.

Social Interactions

consist of 2 or more individuals purposefully relating to each other.

Norms affect Social interactions

Shapes the way ppl percieve the circumstances.
-tel us what is right & proper behavior.

Non-verbal Communication

-thumbs up
-facial expressions
-hand gestures.

Social Significant of social space

needs to be comfortable or proper varies w/ the culture settings, gender, status, & social context.

Rational Choice Theory explains the Interaction Process by

-Expectation of Reciprocity ( a mutual exchange of favors):getting back what you expected.
-if the benefits of the interaction are high & cost is low, the interaction is valued.

Symbolic Interaction Theory explains the interaction process by

focuses on how individual interprets the situations & how it affects their actions.


Study formation of ground rules underlying social interaction & ppl's responses to violation of norms.


individuals perform according to societies script for the situation; they take consideration how their actions will influence others.
-certain role you are expected to say
(ie) hi, how are you...... good, thank you

Front-Stage Behavior

the behavior safest w. casual acquaintances b/c it is scripted & acted to the public to create an impression.

Back-Stage Behavior

letting your feelings show & behaving in ways that might be unacceptable for others audiences.

Social Status

Position you hold in the social world.
-defines how we interact w/ others & how others react to us in a specific situation.
-each individual hold many status, comes with roles that you play.
(ie) sister, mother, brother, employee

Ascribed Status

often assigned at birth & doesn't change durning an individuals lifetime.
(ie) gender, race, ethnicity

Achieved Status

chosen or earned by decisions one makes & sometimes by personal ability.
(ie) higher education

Master Status

main status(takes priority)
-at a particular time or under certain circumstances one of the individual status will become most important & take priority over others.


-Defines how each individual in an interaction is expected to act.
-Every status in your network includes certain behaviors & obligations as you carry out the expected behaviors, rights, & obligations of status.
-with each Status you have to play a Role.
-ppl have many roles

Role Strain

tension between roles within one of the status

Role Conflict

Conflict between the roles of 2 or more status.


2 or more ppl who interact w/ each other b/c of shared common interest, goal, experiences, & needs.
-members feel they belong behavior & engage in structured interaction patters
-establishes own goals.


the state of normlessness
-rules breakdown under extreme stress from rapid social change.

Durkheim study on suicide

found that suicide rates were not related to things like alcoholism, race, heredity,etc. but were related to changes in collective sentiments like depression. found there were three main types of suicide:
-anomic: when a society or one of its parts are in disorder & lack norms for social behavior.
-egoistic: when indvi. fees little social bond to a group.
-altruistic: indvi. is willing to die for a group.

Primary Groups

close contacts & lasting personal relationships
-provide sense of belonging & shared identity.

Secondary Groups

formal, impersonal, business like relationships.

Reference Groups

composed of members who act as role models & establish standards against which all members measure their conduct.


one to which an individual feels a sense of loyalty & belonging.


one to which an individual does not belong.


Specific types of large formal organizations that have the purpose of maximizing efficiency.
division of labor
administration hierarch
formal rules & regulations
impersonal relationships
emphasis on rationality & efficiency to reach goals.

Problems associated with Bureaucracies

Goal displacement

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