Pharmacology - Test 1

Created by jsahn 

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26 terms

Medication Knowledge (5)

1) Classification
2) Safe Dose Range
3) Correct method of administration
4) Expected therapeutic effects
5) ADE

Controlled or "scheduled" drugs

I - LSD, Heroin (most addictive)
II - Narcotic analgesics
III - Sedatives, anabolic steroid
IV - Sedative-Hypnotics
V - Partially controlled (least addictive)

Pharmacotherapeutics

The desired therapeutic or beneficial use of the drug

Pharmacokinetics

How a drug moves in the body:
1) Absorption
2) Distribution
3) Biotransformation
4) Excretion

Absorption

1) Route of admission
- Enteral: oral
- Sublingual
- Parenteral: IV, IM, Subq, Intradermal
- Topical
2) Drug Solubility: liquid > tablets
3) Acid-base composition: water based drug is more soluble; some drugs need an acidic/alkaline medium
4) Site conditions

Distribution

From the bloodstream to the site of action
Depends on: good blood supply and BP
Drugs bind to proteins to be transported --> only free drugs can move into cells

Biotransformation

Metabolism or inactivating the drug

Enzyme induction --> addiction
Enzyme inhibition
First pass effect

Excretion

Getting the drugs out of the body via, lungs, intestines, breast milk, kidneys (<-- #1 method)

Drug Effects on the Fetus

(Tetratogenicity)
A - studies done on pregnant women
B - Animal studies w/o effects
C - Animal studies w/effects
D - Evidence of human fetal risk
E - Risk outweighs ANY potential benefit

3 Categories for Pain

1) Opiates - narcotics
2) Non-opiates: acetaminiphen, ASA, NSAIDS
3) Adjuvant analgesics: benzodiasopines, TCA, corticosteroids

Agonist - Opioid

"Drug that acts like...a pain killer"
EX: Morphine

Agonist/Antagonist - Opioid

Drug that acts like a pain killer and it also blocks some actions of pain killer (to decrease addictive quality of drug)
EX: pentazocine (Talwin)

Opiate Antagonist

Counter acts the effect of narcotics
EX: Narcan

What increases risk of bleeding in NSDAIDS

Steroids
Oral anticoagulants
Lithium
Oral hypoglycemics
Alcohol
Heparin

Anti-Anxiety & Sedatives

= Relaxation
but large doses can = sleep

Hypnotics

= Sleep
but small doses can = sedation

Sympathomimetic

same effect as stimulation of the SNS
= adrenergic/cataecholamine
= alpha adrenergic agonists
= beta adrenergic agonists

Parasympathomimetic

same effect as stimulating PNS
= cholenergic
= Cholinomimetic

Sympatholytic

same effect as blocking SNS
= anti-adrenergics
= alpha/beta blockers

Parasympatholytic

same effect as blocking the PNS
= anti-cholinergic
= cholinergic blockers

Adrenergic Effects

Increase in HR/blood sugar/BP/sweating/blood coagulation/fatty acids
Bronchi/pupil dilation
Alpha receptors: vascoconstrict --> higher BP
Beta1: cardiac -- (+)inotropic and (+)chronoctropic
Beta2: lungs -- bronchodilation

Anti-adrenergic Effects

Decrease in HR/BP/CO/fatty acids/blood sugar
Bronchi/pupil constriction
Alpha receptors: vasodilation --> lower BP
Beta1: cardiac (-)chronotropic and (-)inotropic
Beta2: lungs -- brochoconstriction

Cholinergic Effects

"WET"
Bronchi/pupil constriction
Decrease in HR/BP
Increase in salivation/HCL/sweating/voiding/GI mobility
Vasodilation
Nicotinic: skeletal muscles -- contraction
Muscarinic: internal organs -- secretions

Anti-cholinergic Effects

"DRY"
Bronchi/pupil dilation
Increase in BP/HR
Decrease in salivation/HCL/sweating/voiding/GI mobility
Vasoconstriction

What does a release in histamine cause?

bronchoconstriction
cough
increase in capillary permeability
increase mucus production
stimulation of sensory peripheral nerve endings (itchy/pain)
Dilation of capillaries
stimulates the Vagus nerve

Antihistamine Indications

allergic rhinitis (seasonal allergies)
anaphylaxis
drug allergies
blood transfusion reaction
contact dermatitis

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