Biology Chapter 38

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Conservation Biology

a goal-driven science that seeks to counter the biodiversity crisis, the rapid decrease in the number of species on Earth

Biodiversity

the variety of living things

Genetic Diversity

occurs within and between populations of a species - provides raw material for microevolution and adaptation

Species Diversity

the variety of species in an ecosystem or throughout the biosphere

Endangered Species

in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range

Threatened Species

those that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future

Ecosystem Diversity

the interaction of populations of different species within an ecosystem

Major Threats to Biodiversity:

habitat destruction, invasive species, overexploitation

Habitat Destruction

- single greatest threat to biodiversity
- made by humans

Invasive Species

compete with, prey upon, or parasitize native species

Overexploitation

involves harvesting wildlife at rates that exceed the ability of populations to rebound

Effects of Pollution:

acid rain, ozone depletion, "dead zones", biological magnification

Population Fragmentation

the splitting a consequent isolation of portions and populations

Landscape Ecology

the application of ecological principles to the study of the structure and dynamics of a collection of ecosystems

Edges

boundaries between ecosystems

Movement Corridors

small strips or clumps of high quality habitat that connect fragmented habitat

Biodiversity Hotspots

areas with large numbers of endangered, threatened, and endemic species

Nature Reserves

undisturbed wildlands surrounded by buffer zones of compatible economic development

Sustainable Development

the longterm prosperity of human societies and the ecosystems that support them

Restoration Ecology

uses ecological principles to return degraded areas to their natural state

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