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sociology ch. 2

culture

total way of life shared by members of a community

society

the population that shares same territory, bound together by economic and political ties

nonmaterial culture

language, values, rules and knowledge shared by a society

material culture

physical objects a society produces such as tools, streets, sculptures, and they depend on nonmaterial for meaning.

STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH

Culture as underlying
basis of interaction.
 Culture as a 'given'.
 Culture shapes us rather
than in how culture itself
is shaped.

conflict theory approach

Culture as a social product.
 Whose interests are served
by how culture develops?

cultural capital

refers to having the attitudes and knowledge that characterize the upper social classes

basis of human behavior

 Problem
solving.
 Relative.

 A social
product.

problem solving

Cultural patterns evolve
to provide solutions to
recurrent problems
humans encounter.
 Problems are universal,
but the solutions
people adopt vary
considerably.

relative

cultural relativity requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its won culture

ethnocentrism

is tendency to judge other cultures according to norms and values of our culture

social product

--Immense cultural diversity
not from unique gene pools,
but cultural evolution.
 Some aspects are
deliberately produced.
 Culture relies on language.

sociobiology

is the stuy of biological basis of all forms of human behavior

carriers of culture

language, values, and norms

language

is the ability to communicate in symbols- orally, by signing, or by wrting

values

are shared ideas about desirable goals; tenderness and cooperation, or toughness and competition

norms

are shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think; folkways, mores, and laws

folkways

are norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things

mores

are norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right or wrong

laws

are mores that are enforced and sanctioned by the gov

sanctions

are rewards and punishments

subcultures

are groups that share the overall culture of a society but maintain a distinctive set of vales, norms, lifestyles and language

countercultures

are groups whose values, interests, beliefs, and lifestyles conflict with those of the larger culture

assimilation

is process through which individuals learn and adopt values and social practices of dominant group, more or less giving up their own values.

multiculturalism

is belief that different cultural strands within a culture should be valued and nourished

cultural diversity and change

Enviroment
Cultural diffusion
Isolation
Tech
Exposure to Mass media

cultural diffusion

The process by which
aspects of one culture
or subculture are
incorporated into
another.

popular culture

refers to aspects of
culture that are widely accessible and
commonly shared by most members of
a society, especially those in the middle,
working, and lower classes.

high culture

e refers to the cultural
preferences associated with the upper
class.

cultural lag

occurs when one part of a
culture changes more rapidly than another

culture shock

refers to the discomfort that
arises from exposure to a different culture.

globalization of culture

e is the process
through which cultural elements (including
musical styles, fashion trends, and cultural
values) spread around the globe.

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