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AN/O

Anus.

CHOL/E

Bile or gall.

CHOLECYST/O

Gallbladder.

COL/O, COLON/O

Colon.

-EMESIS

Vomiting.

ENTER/O

Small intestine.

ESOPHAG/O

Esophagus.

GASTR/O

Stomach.

HEPAT/O

Liver.

-LITHIASIS

Presence of stones.

-PEPSIA

Digestion.

-PHAGIA

Swallowing.

PROCT/O

Rectum and anus.

RECT/O

Rectum.

SIGMOID/O

Sigmoid colon

aerophagia

The excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach.

amebic dysentery

An intestinal disorder caused by a parasite.

anastomosis

A surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures; plural, anatomoses.

anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance that leads to a refusal to maintain a normal body weight.

antiemetic

Medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.

aphthous ulcers

Gray-white pits with a red border that appear in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers.

ascites

An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

bariatrics

The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and allied diseases.

borborygmus

The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.

botulism

Food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting.

cachexia

A condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.

cheilosis

a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth.

cholangiography

A radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium.

cholangitis

An acute infection of the bile duct.

cholecystalgia

Pain in the gallbladder.

cholecystectomy

The surgical removal of the gallbladder.

cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones.

choledocholithotomy

An incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones.

cholelithiasis

The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.

cholera

Severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae .

cirrhosis

A progressive degenerative disease of the liver.

colonoscopy

The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the colon, from the rectum to the cecum.

Crohn's disease

A chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon.

diverticulitis

Inflammation of one or more diverticula in the wall of the colon.

diverticulosis

The presence of a number of diverticula in the wall of the colon.

dyspepsia

Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.

dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

emesis

To expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth; also known as vomiting.

enteritis

Inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral or bacterial pathogens.

eructation

The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.

esophageal varices

Enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

The endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum.

gastroduodenostomy

The removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.

gastroesophageal reflux disease

The upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.

gastrostomy tube

The surgical placement of a feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach.

hematemesis

Vomiting blood.

Hemoccult

A laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools; also known as fecal occult blood test.

hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or damage from toxic substances.

herpes labialis

Blisterlike sores on the lips and adjacent tissue caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters.

hiatal hernia

The protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm.

hyperemesis

Extreme, persistent vomiting that may lead to dehydration.

ileus

The partial or complete blockage of the small intestine, large intestine, or both caused by the cessation of intestinal peristalsis.

inguinal hernia

The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.

jaundice

A yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.

melena

The passage of stools with a black and tarlike appearance that is caused by the presence of digested blood.

morbid obesity

The condition of weighing two or three times, or more, the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity.

nasogastric intubation

The placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach.

obesity

An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.

periodontium

The bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth.

peristalsis

A series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction.

proctopexy

Surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.

regurgitation

The return of swallowed food into the mouth.

salmonellosis

An infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces.

sigmoidoscopy

The endoscopic examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.

stomatorrhagia

Bleeding from any part of the mouth.

trismus

Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer.

ulcerative colitis

A chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation.

volvulus

Twisting of the intestine upon itself, causing an obstruction.

xerostomia

The lack of adequate saliva due to the absence of or diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth.

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