There aren't enough good-paying jobs in
social interaction forces
Racial inequality is reinforced when police
officers assume nonwhites are more likely to
recurrent pattern f relationships
enable and constrain us
can be found in all levels of society
reinforced by formal rules and/or custom
3 elements: status, role and institution
A specialized position in a group.
(good or bad) position that a person can attain for life
are fixed by
birth and inheritance; ex: race, sex, age, etc..
refers to the
combination of all statuses held
by an individual.
Sets of norms specifying
rights and obligations
associated with status.
occurs when incompatible role demands develop within a single status. ex: like mothers not being able to feed kids
when incompatible role
because of multiple statuses. ex: working student
enduring social structures that meet basic human needs.
basic social institutions
affects the others
and is affected by
and values; adds
to social stability.
structural functional theory
social life to run
smoothly in stable
and predictable ways.
tradition, viewed as
morally right - they
who benefits from existing institutions?
institutions support the interests of those in power
help maintain inequality
types of society
hunting, fishing and gathering
hunting fishing and gathering
Those societies in which most food must be
obtained by killing wild animals or finding
Simple subsistence economy does not
Individuals are homogenous (alike) having
the same everyday experiences.
Characterized by small-scale, simple farming,
without plows or large animals, settlement
Began when people began to cultivate crops
(first agricultural revolution).
are based on growing foods using plows and large beasts of burden
Characterized by mass production of nonagricultural goods.
Arose only a few hundred years ago in Western
which most people share
close personal bonds.
which people are tied
primarily by impersonal,
an answer to the question What is going on here?
Identities will depend somewhat on the frame.
Identity is negotiated by trying to get others to
play the roles we have assigned them.
Negotiation is based on power relations
A version of symbolic
interaction developed by
Erving Goffman, that
views social institutions
as scenes manipulated
by the actors to convey
the desired impression to
to control how
others view us.
Consists of two
• avoiding blame
• gaining credit
accounts, excuses, justifications, disclaimer
are explanations of unexpected or untoward behavior: excuses and justifications
one admits that an act is wrong, or inappropriate; claims one couldn't help it
explains reasons one had for choosing to break the rule; often an appeal to an alternate rule
verbal device used in advance toward off negative reactions to one's conduct