social interaction forces
Racial inequality is reinforced when police
officers assume nonwhites are more likely to
recurrent pattern f relationships
enable and constrain us
can be found in all levels of society
reinforced by formal rules and/or custom
3 elements: status, role and institution
occurs when incompatible role demands develop within a single status. ex: like mothers not being able to feed kids
when incompatible role
because of multiple statuses. ex: working student
affects the others
and is affected by
and values; adds
to social stability.
structural functional theory
social life to run
smoothly in stable
and predictable ways.
tradition, viewed as
morally right - they
who benefits from existing institutions?
institutions support the interests of those in power
help maintain inequality
types of society
hunting, fishing and gathering
hunting fishing and gathering
Those societies in which most food must be
obtained by killing wild animals or finding
Simple subsistence economy does not
Individuals are homogenous (alike) having
the same everyday experiences.
Characterized by small-scale, simple farming,
without plows or large animals, settlement
Began when people began to cultivate crops
(first agricultural revolution).
Characterized by mass production of nonagricultural goods.
Arose only a few hundred years ago in Western
Identities will depend somewhat on the frame.
Identity is negotiated by trying to get others to
play the roles we have assigned them.
Negotiation is based on power relations
A version of symbolic
interaction developed by
Erving Goffman, that
views social institutions
as scenes manipulated
by the actors to convey
the desired impression to
to control how
others view us.
Consists of two
• avoiding blame
• gaining credit
explains reasons one had for choosing to break the rule; often an appeal to an alternate rule