|structural forces|| There aren't enough good-paying jobs in |
|social interaction forces|| Racial inequality is reinforced when police |
officers assume nonwhites are more likely to
|social structure|| recurrent pattern f relationships|
enable and constrain us
can be found in all levels of society
reinforced by formal rules and/or custom
3 elements: status, role and institution
|status||A specialized position in a group.|
|achieved statuses||(good or bad) position that a person can attain for life|
|ascribed statuses|| are fixed by |
birth and inheritance; ex: race, sex, age, etc..
|status set|| refers to the |
combination of all statuses held
by an individual.
|roles|| Sets of norms specifying |
rights and obligations
associated with status.
|role strain||occurs when incompatible role demands develop within a single status. ex: like mothers not being able to feed kids|
|role conflict|| occurs |
when incompatible role
because of multiple statuses. ex: working student
|institutions||enduring social structures that meet basic human needs.|
|basic social institutions|| family|
|institutional interdependence|| Each institution |
affects the others
and is affected by
and values; adds
to social stability.
|structural functional theory|| --Institutions allow |
social life to run
smoothly in stable
and predictable ways.
tradition, viewed as
morally right - they
|conflict theory|| who benefits from existing institutions?|
institutions support the interests of those in power
help maintain inequality
|types of society|| hunting, fishing and gathering|
|hunting fishing and gathering|| Those societies in which most food must be |
obtained by killing wild animals or finding
Simple subsistence economy does not
Individuals are homogenous (alike) having
the same everyday experiences.
|horticultural|| Characterized by small-scale, simple farming, |
without plows or large animals, settlement
Began when people began to cultivate crops
(first agricultural revolution).
|agricultural||are based on growing foods using plows and large beasts of burden|
|industrial|| Characterized by mass production of nonagricultural goods.|
Arose only a few hundred years ago in Western
|gemeinshaft|| societies in |
which most people share
close personal bonds.
|gesellschaft|| societies in |
which people are tied
primarily by impersonal,
|frame||an answer to the question What is going on here?|
|identity negotiation|| Identities will depend somewhat on the frame. |
Identity is negotiated by trying to get others to
play the roles we have assigned them.
Negotiation is based on power relations
|dramaturgy|| A version of symbolic |
interaction developed by
Erving Goffman, that
views social institutions
as scenes manipulated
by the actors to convey
the desired impression to
|impression management|| Actions and |
to control how
others view us.
Consists of two
• avoiding blame
• gaining credit
|avoiding blame||accounts, excuses, justifications, disclaimer|
|accounts||are explanations of unexpected or untoward behavior: excuses and justifications|
|excuses||one admits that an act is wrong, or inappropriate; claims one couldn't help it|
|justifications||explains reasons one had for choosing to break the rule; often an appeal to an alternate rule|
|disclaimer||verbal device used in advance toward off negative reactions to one's conduct|