The study of structural and functional manifestations of disease
Any abnormal disturbance of the function or structure of the human body
Objective manifestation of disease perceptible to the managing physician
Subjective evidence of a disease as perceived by the patient
General term used to describe the various types of cellular change that can occur in response to a disease
Group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a specific abnormal disturbance
The study of the cause and origin of disease
The name of a disease an individual is believed to have
Tthe prediction of course and outcome for a given disease
Having no identifiable causative factor
Sequence of events producing cellular changes that ultimately lead to observable changes known as manifestation
The condition or quality of being pathogenic; the ability to cause disease
The ease with which an organism can overcome body defenses; specifically, the disease-evoking severity of a pathogen.
Tthe quick onset of disease that lasts a short period of time (i.e. pneumonia)
The slow presentation of disease that lasts a very long time (i.e. multiple sclerosis)
Six categories of disease
-Congenital and Hereditary
Diseases present at birth and result from genetic or environmental factors.
-May be acquired in utero (within the uterus) from maternal infections, radiation or drugs.
-A major category is caused by abnormalities in the number and distribution of chromosomes.
-Occur sporadically and cannot generally be recognized before birth.
Diseases caused by developmental disorders genetically transmitted from either parent to child through abnormalities of individual genes in chromosomes.
-Derived from ancestors
Genetic abnormality present on one of the other 22 human chromosomes
Transmitted by a single gene from either parent
Transmitted by both parents to an offspring
Inherited disease may be either....
Dominant or Recessive
Typically guided by ultrasound, is a standard used (prenatally) to assess presence of certain hereditary disorders
Disease that results from the body's reaction to a localized injurious agent.
Results from invasion by microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi)
Results from poisoning by biologic substances
An overreaction of the body's own defense
Types of inflammatory disease
Diseases associated with antibodies that normally form to fight foreign antigens (toxic substances, proteins, bacterial particles) but instead form against and injure a patient's own tissues. These antibodies are called auto antibodies
-General process nonspecific to the agent causing the injury.
-The purpose is to localize the injurious agent and prepare for subsequent repair and healing of the injured tissues.
Cellular necrosis (cell death) is common. Characteristics include heat, redness, swelling, pain, and some loss of function; body temperature may elevate
Acute Inflammatory Reaction
-Damage caused by injurious agent may not result in tissue death.
-Conditions lasting for long periods.
Chronic Inflammatory Reaction
Damaged tissue is replaced by new tissue
Removal of dead cells and materials; cell migration and replication - migration of adjacent cells into the injured area and replication of the cells via mitosis to fill the void in the tissue
Occurs in response to normal use of tissue
Inflammatory process caused by a disease-causing organism
-Pathogens invades, multiplies, and causes injurious effects
-The infection is usually accompanied by inflammation
-Deterioration of the body
-Associated with the aging process, may exist in younger patients after traumatic injury
-Aging results form gradual maturation of physiologic processes that reach a peak, then fades to point where body can no longer survive
Factors affecting rate of age
What abilities of tissues decrease over time because of what of two reasons:
-Reduced cell numbers
-The function of each individual cell declines
Three diseases that are commonly associated with aging process
Deposits of plaque that form in the walls of arteries
Demineralization of bone
Produces gradual deterioration of joint cartilage.
Diseases caused by a disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body
Include endocrine disorders
Secretes hormones into the bloodstream to regulate various metabolic functions.
Major endocrine glands:
Include fluid and electrolyte balance disturbances
Caused by insufficient intake or excessive loss of water. The most common disturbance of fluid balance
Mineral salts (most commonly sodium and potassium) dissolved in the body's water. Depletion of them may occur from vomiting, diarrhea or diuretics (substances that promote excretion of salt water).
-Mechanical forces such as crushing or twisting body part or from effects of ionizing radiation on the human body.
-Extreme hot or cold temperatures such as burns or frostbite.
-Bone injury resulting in fracture
Injury of soft parts associated with rupture of the skin
What may be injured even if skin is unbroken?
Bleeding into the tissue space as a result of capillary rupture.
Diseases that result in new, abnormal tissue growth.
Overgrowth of cells due to the malfunction of mechanisms that control cell growth
Localized , noninvasive
Continues to grow, spread and invade other tissues. Generally referred to as cancer
Sometimes is difficult to classify abnormal cells as either _______because they may exhibit both types.
Benign or malignant
The spread of malignant cancer cells
Cancerous cells invade the circulatory system and spread via blood vessels
Spread via lymphatic system
Spread into surrounding tissue due to close proximity
Cancerous cells travel to distant site or distant organ systems
Cancer type derived from epithelial tissue
Arises from connective tissue
Arises from blood cells
Arises from lymphatic cells
Are cancer and carcinoma are synonymous?
A general term often used to denote various types of malignant neoplasms.
What are primary treatment modalities for cancer?
Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy
Genetic abnormality present on one of the two human sex chromosomes
A discontinuity of bone caused by mechanical forces either applied to the bone or transmitted directly along the line of a bone
-diagnose fracture or dislocation
-healing and any possible complications of fractures
What are the purposes in the evaluation of skeletal truma in Radiography?
Radiographs of the long bones should demonstrate the joint _____the area of trauma
Above and below
If a fracture is placed in a cast, the exposure factors must be increased to ____________, dry or wet plaster cast. However, no adjustment needs to be made for dry fiberglass.
Penetrate the wet fiberglass
Fractures usually appear as a ______?
Refers to a tissue or material that transmits x-rays and appears dark on a radiograph.
Occasionally, a fracture appears as a ___________ if the fragments overlap
Refers to a tissue or material that absorbs x-rays and appears bright on a radiograph.
Another radiographic indication of fracture is a __________, seen by a break in the normal bony contour.
Step in the cortex
1) Neurovascular damage
2) Capsular and ligamentous tears
3) Cartilage injury
4) Hemarthroses (blood in joints)
Skeletal trauma usually causes significant soft tissue injuries, including:
Bone tissue is unique in its ability to repair itself in that it reactivates processes that normally occur during______.
The phase of prenatal development involved in establishment of the characteristic configuration of the embryonic body
Initial break is filled with _____.
Within ____days, osteoblasts begin to appear around injured bone
What begins to form one week after a fracture?
Rsults in bony callus replacement, which rigidly unites the fracture site
Unites within 4-6 weeks
The bone has penetrated the skin
The skin is not penetrated
one fractured bone end is jammed into the cancellous tissue of another fragment
fracture of the proximal femur located between the greater and lesser trochanters. This is not the same thing as a femoral neck fracture, which occurs above the intertrochanteric.
a fracture of the distal end of the humerus or femur located above the condylar region.
a fracture through the condyles of the humerus or femur
The bone is essentially splintered or crushed at the site of impact resulting in two or more fragment
fragments split off or located on each side of a main fragment; any of the fragments can have a wedge-shaped appearance resembling the wings of a butterfly
Thin, sharp fragments
Non-comminuted (complete) fractures
The bone has separated into two fragments. There are three types
There are three types of Non-comminuted (complete) fractures:
fracture line is at near right angle to the long axis of the bone
the fracture spirals around the longaxis(helical); usually results from a twisting injury
(in which the fracture line passes
through the bone at an oblique angle
occur when a fragment of bone is pulled away from the shaft
Fractures in which only part of the bony structure gives way, with little or no displacement
The cortex breaks on one side of the bone without separation or breaking of the opposite cortex. Found almost exclusively in infants and children under the age of 10 years
is a greenstick fracture in which the cortex bulges outward. Sometimes called a buckle fracture. Commonly occurs in the radius or ulna
a fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck (occasionally the fourth) as a result of a blow to or with the hand.
a fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment usually displaced or angled posteriorly on the shaft (dorsal). Results from a fall on an outstretched arm. reverse Colles' fracture is a Smith fracture with displacement of the fragment toward the palmar (anterior) aspect of the hand
a fracture that occurs at the base of the first metacarpal and includes posterior dislocation. Occurs when the thumb is forced backward while in partial flexion and is commonly seen in basketball players and skiers
a fracture of the proximal third of the ulnar shaft, with anterior dislocation of the radial head
a complete fracture that involves both malleoli, with dislocation of the ankle joint
results when a bone is out of its joint and not in contact with its normal articulation
Most commonly dislocated anteriorly. The major causes are trauma, seizure disorders, and electric shock
Radiographic indications of shoulder dislocations are readily detectable because the humeral head is seen where?
below the glenoid fossa and coracoid process
With trauma, the femoral head is commonly displaced posteriorly to lie against the sciatic notch
-Recognized by a shortening of the extremity
Congenital hip dislocation
Separations of the AC joints. More common in children than adults
a partial dislocation, often occurring with a fracture
bone death resulting from inadequate blood supply
Most common in men 30-60 years of age
1) Most common fracture site is at the angles.
2) Patient cannot open their mouth.
3) Radiograph must view the entire mandible
slowest healing bone in the body
separation of the maxilla from the base of the skull
Horizontal (LeFort I)
verticle fracture through the maxilla at the malar and nasal bones
Pyramidal (LeFort II)
extends across the orbits and results in separation of the visceral and cerebral cranium
Transverse LeFort III)
orbital floor fracture just above the maxillary sinuses, resulting from a direct blow to the front of the orbit. Radiographic appearance is possible disruption of bony cortex
the zygomatic or malar bone is
fractured at all three sutures: frontal, temporal, and maxillary
Most frequently fractured facial bone. May be accompanied by a fracture of the nasal septum. A nose bleed is usually present
Nasal bone fracture
-Hyperextension/flexion injuries (whiplash)
-The most common condition is generalized back pain, typically in the lumbar area.
Causes of vertebral (spinal injuries)
Most frequent type of injury involving a vertebral body.
The most common sites: T11-T12 and T12-L1
a fracture of the arch of C2.
Hangman's fracture (traumatic spondylosis)
when either anterior or posterior column is fractured or dislocated
when both columns are involved in the injury.
must include all seven vertebrae in their entirety, including spinous processes and intervertebral disk spaces. This may require assistance to depress the patient's shoulders or the use of the specialized cervicothoracic lateral projection.
lateral cervical radiograph
-Size, shape, and alignment
-Position and integrity of C2 odontoid process
-Relationship of C1 to occipital bone
-The alignment of the spinolaminal lines
Trauma C-Spine radiographs are analyzed to evaluate
plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral fractures and dislocations
may be used to evaluate the extent of
ligamentous and soft tissue injury
If patient is recumbent or semi-recumbent, the heart appears to be_________. This is due to the abdominal organs pushing the diaphragm and heart upwards inside the thoracic cavity.
At least __ posterior ribs should be visible in the lung fields
Chest radiographs obtained without good inspiration distort heart's________
shape and size
Relatively high kV is required to adequately penetrate the mediastinum. ________________ should be used
A minimum 100 kilovolts peak (KVP)
An enlarged heart is termed ________, which is indicative of many cardiovascular disorders and is a nonspecific finding
Factors that affect heart size and shape that are not under the control of the technologist include
-Patient body habitus
-Bony thorax abnormalities
-Pathologic conditions (ex.pulmonary emphysema).
A general term that describes the radiologic examination of vascular structures within the body after the introduction of an iodinated contrast medium or gas. This is the most commonly performed procedure for cardiovascular disease
The radiologic examination of arteries after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.
The radiologic study of veins after the injection of radiopaque contrast medium.
occurs when heart is unable to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume. Results in congestion of the circulatory subsystem, which prevents a sufficient supply of blood from reaching body's tissues.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
-Most commonly caused by hypertension
-May affect either side of the heart, but both sides commonly affected together.
the left ventricle of the heart is unable to pump an amount of blood equal to the venous return in the right ventricle
not as common as the left side;occurs when the right ventricle cannot pump as much blood as it receives from the right atrium
A common form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) in which deposits of fibro fatty plaque or thickenings form within the wall of large and medium-sized arteries
-Affects sexes equally; however, earlier in men
-May occur in any artery, but primarily in aorta, coronary, and cerebral arteries.
As the disease atherosclerosis slowly progresses, the vessel becomes____.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents. T/F
Results from deposition of atheromas (a mass of plaque) in the arteries supplying blood to the heart
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Caused by acute thrombus of the coronary arteries and primarily affects the left ventricle of the heart
Myocardial Infarction (MI - heart attack)
a localized "ballooning" or out pouching of a vessel wall
Localized bulge involving one side of the arterial wall. Usually located in a cerebral artery
Bulging that includes the entire circumference of the vessel wall. This type is often found in the distal abdominal aorta
Results when the intima tears and allows blood to flow within the vessel wall. Symptoms of dissecting aneurysm often mimic those of a heart attack
The formation of blood clots within a vein.
- clots commonly form in veins of lower extremities.
-Result from slowing of the blood return to the heart.
-Postoperative or bedfast patients are prone to disorder.
-Phlebitis (inflammation of the veins) often associated
Exposure to ______ can have a harmful effect on blood marrow and lymphoid tissue
the most radiosensitive cells
Chest radiographs may help identify lymphatic changes within the mediastinum and infections associated with....
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
The most common malignancy in AIDS patients
72" to decrease heart magnification
Source-to-Image distance (SID)
is currently the most definitive procedure for visualizing the coronary anatomy