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Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host

What type of immunity results from vaccination?

Artificially acquired active immunity

What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?

Artificially acquired passive immunity

What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?

Naturally acquired active immunity

A human's resistance to canine distemper is an example of

Innate immunity

Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of

Naturally acquired passive immunity

What type of immunity is NOT due to antibodies?

Innate immunity

What type of immunity results from an injection of tetanus toxoid?

Artificially acquired active immunity

Immunity due to injection of an antigen is an example of

Artificially acquired active immunity

CD4+ T cells are activated by

CD4+ and MHC II

Which of the following recognizes antigens displayed on host cells with MHC II

TH cell

The specificity of an antibody is due to

The variable portions of the H and L chains

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?

They recognize antigens associated with MHC I

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular immunity?

B cells make antibodies

Plasma cells are activated by a(n)

Antigen

The antibodies found in mucous, saliva, and tears are

IgA

The antibodies found on B cells are

IgD

The antibodies that can bind large parasites are

IgE

In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are

IgM

Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are

IgM

The most abundant class of antibodies in serum

IgG

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's secondary response to an antigen?

C
The second increase on the first antibody titer

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's response to a second antigen?

E
The stretch of time indicated on the second antibody titer

In Figure 17.1, the arrow at time (d) indicates

Exposure to a new antigen

Which statement is false?
A. The variable region of a heavy chain binds with antigen
B. The variable region of a light chain binds with antigen
C. The Fc region attaches to a host cell
D. The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies
E. All of the above statements are true

The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies

The best definition of antigen is

A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies

The best definition of antibody is

A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen

The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third step?

TH cell recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II

In Figure 17.2, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?

c and d
The parallel verticle lines

In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?

a and b
The parallel diagonal lines on the left

In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?

a and b
The parallel diagonal lines on the left

In Figure 17.2, what can attach to a host cell?

e
The length of c the verticle line on the left

Figure 17.2 could be any of the following EXCEPT

IgM

The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?

IgM

Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?

CTL

The following events occur in cellular immunity. What is the third step?

TH cells proliferate

Cytokines released by TH1 cells

Activate CD8+ cells to CTLs

Which one of the following causes transmembrane channels in target cells?

Perforin

Patients with an inherited type of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis have a mutation in the gene that codes for

Apoptosis

Thymic selection

Destroys T cells that don't recognize self-molecules of MHC

Which of the following statements about natural killer cells is false?

They are stimulated by an antigen

An antibody's Fc region can be bound by

Macrophages

A Treg cell deficiency could result in

Autoimmunity

Cell death caused by perforin and granzymes is caused by

CTLs

IL-2, produced by TH cells

Stimulates TH cell maturation

Which of the following statements about IL-12 is false?

It causes autoimmune diseases

Which antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are important factors in the control of such intracellular pathogens as the tubercle bacillus and virus-infected cells?

macrophages

If a patient is infected with parasitic protozoa or helminths, what must occur prior to lysis of the target cell?

Cells of the immune system bind to the Fc regions of attached antibodies.

Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?
a)The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
b)The production of identical B cells producing different antibodies
c)The production of identical T cells producing the same antibody
d)The production of different antigens by the same B cell

a)The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody

What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?

Plasma cells and memory B cells

An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as

T-independent antigens

T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?

MHC

How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?

Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second.

Antigen processing and presentation

is a way for a cell to give information about its activities

Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?

Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus.

How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?

They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells.

Which of the following statements does not accurately describe cells involved with cellular immunity?
a)Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.
b)The lymphocytes involved with cellular immunity are found primarily in lymphoid organs and blood.
c)The cells involved with cellular immunity mature under the influence of the thymus.
d)The lymphocytes involved with cellular immunity respond to antigens by means of receptors.

a)Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.

Which immunoglobulin class, found in blood, lymph, and the intestine, enhances phagocytosis, neutralizes toxins and viruses, and protects the fetus and the newborn?

IgG

Regarding antibody structure, which regions of adjacent antibodies can bind complement if left exposed after both antigen-binding sites attach to an antigen?

Fc region

What makes agglutination by antibodies possible?

Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.

What is the role of plasma cells in humoral immunity?

Plasma cells produce antibodies.

How might a pathogenic bacterium be affected by antibodies?

The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria.

If virus-infected cells are present in a patient, which of the following cell populations are transformed into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) whose function is to directly kill the virus-infected cells?

CD8+ T cells with receptors for the antigen

Which of the following types of T cells is effective in opsonization and inflammation?

TH1 cells

Where are MHC molecules located on a cell?

On the surface of the cell

What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins?

They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.

Which organelle assists directly with the presentation of MHC-I antigens?

The endoplasmic reticulum

When does MHC-II loading occur?

During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens

Which of the cells listed below can present antigens on Class II MHC proteins?

Macrophages

What is apoptosis?

The process of programmed cell death

What is the function of the CD8 receptor?

Bind to MHC molecules

What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?

They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.

Which molecule triggers apoptosis?

Granzyme

Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?

CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells

Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?

TCR

TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate

B cells

Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?

MHC proteins

When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?

After proliferation into a clonal population

Natural killer cells are activated by

TH1 cells.

Which type of cell directly attacks infected cells?

Cytotoxic T-cells

Cytokines are produced by which of the following cells?

Helper T-cells

HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity?

Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body

Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.

How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together?

Which structure do antigen presenting cells utilize to directly help them present bacterial antigens?

Phagolysosome

Which of the following are likely to be found on an MHC-I protein?

Damaged mitochondrial fragment

What would a virally infected skin epithelial cell have on its cell surface?

Class I MHC with skin cell antigens

Which of the following would you likely see on the surface of a human dendritic cell following phagocytosis of a bacterium?

Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens and Class II MHC with engulfed bacteria

Where would you most likely find bacteriophage antigens?

Macrophage Class II MHC proteins

Which cytokines are powerful factors involved in inflammatory reactions of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis?

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

If a patient has been exposed to an antigen for the first time, which class of immunoglobulins appears first?

IgM

The primary immune response involves

a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline.

Which cells are involved in a secondary response?

Memory B cells and plasma cells

How is the secondary response different from the primary response in terms of antibody concentration in the blood?

The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response.

An anamnestic response is

another name for secondary response.

In the antigenic immune response, the antibodies produced in response to the second exposure to an antigen are mostly

IgG

Which type of adaptive immunity is involved when someone is exposed to antigens but shows no signs or symptoms of illness?

Naturally acquired active immunity

What is the final step in the sequence of events that occur in cellular immunity?

CD8+ T cell becomes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte

Includes cilia, mucous membranes, dendritic cells

innate immunity

immunological response brought about by antibody production

humoral immunity

immunological response that kills infected host cells

cellular immunity

use(s) BCRs to recognize etitope. First step in clonal selection

immature B cells

Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display etitope to helper T cells using MHC I or II

dendritic cells

lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLs

Th cells

differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen

memory cells

produce and secrete antibodies

plasma cells

Kill(s) infected host cells

cytotoxic T cells

What is the role of helper T cells in the adaptive immune response?

Helper T cells activate B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill infected host cells.

What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell?

An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells

The student who caught the cold caused by this specific Rhinovirus was exposed to the exact same Rhinovirus 18 months later. What component of the immune system will protect her from getting the same cold again?

Memory B cells

Correctly order the steps involved cellular immunity:
1)The Tc recognizes the infected host cell
2)The Tc interacts with epitope presented by MHC-I on the dendritic cell
3)The Tc secretes perforin and granzyme, causing apoptosis
4)The helper T cell activates the Tc cell

2,4,1,3

Which of the following is NOT a step used by cytotoxic T cells to kill infected host cells?

Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein

Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur:
1)Endosome fuses with lysozome
2)Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus
3)Epitopes are attached to MHC-II
4)Digestion of the Rhinovirus
5)MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell

2,1,4,3,5

Which pair of molecules do NOT directly interact with one another?

BCR and TCR

Which of the following is NOT a step that ultimately leads to antibody production?

Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells

A person who has AIDS contracts rare and often life-threatening infections because their helper T cell count is so low. Which of the following components of the immune response still respond to antigen despite the low helper T cell count?

Clonal selection of B cells

Which of the following statements is true?
a)Innate defenses are enough to keep a person healthly
b)Memory B cells are typically established when the B cell binds to an antigen.
c)Adaptive defenses include humoral immunity only.
d)Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.

d)Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.

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