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atom

The smallest unit of an element

energy level

The area surrounding the nucleus of an atom in which electrons are normally located

atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom

compound

Atoms of two or more elements chemically bonded to one another

nucleus

The positively charged center of an atom

electron

Exists in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom and carries a negative charge

molecule

Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

matter

Anything which occupies space and has mass

mixture

Two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined

atomic mass

The mass of an element

neutron

A subatomic particle that carries no charge

diatomic

Containing two atoms

proton

A subatomic particle with a positive charge

matter

What has mass and occupies space?

four

Matter can exist in how many phases

92

there are____ elements that can be found to occur in nature.

carbon. oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen

four of the most abundant elements found in plants and animals.

--A compound consists of two or more distinct bonded atoms
--a molecule is the smallest chemical subunit of a compound
--a molecule may consist of two similar elements chemically bonded

statements regarding a compound and a molecule:

true

Each element consists of only one type of atom. TRUE or FALSE

protons

Each unique element is determined by the number of_______ occurring in the atom.

number of protons

Any particular element can always be identified by its:

electrons

The subatomic particles/ units which govern potential chemical reactions among elements are:

A. electrons of a neutral atom always equals the number of protons

Which statement is correct?
A. electrons of a neutral atom always equals the number of protons
B. neutrons always equal the number of protons
C. neutrons always equal the number of electrons
D. atomic weight is identical to atomic mass

electrons

The common subatomic particles that make up an atom consist of protons, neutrons, and

atom

The smallest unit which retains the properties of an element is a(n)

neutrons

Atomic mass is determined by the number of protons plus

11
12
11
11
23

Element: sodium
Symbol: Na
# Protons
# Neutrons
# Electrons
Atomic Number:

17
18
17
17
35

Element: Chlorine
Symbol: Cl
# Protons
# Neutrons
# Electrons
Atomic Number:

two

Many elements exist naturally as a diatomic molecule. This means that the element is found in nature as ______chemically bonded atoms.

minerals

Naturally occurring compounds in the earth are called

a molecule of two Nitrogen atoms

Nitrogen gas consists of:

molecule

The smallest unit of a compound is a(n

CO2

A molecule of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen would be written:

compound, molecule

HCl is an example of a(n):

ion

Electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of electrons

chemical bond

The union between atoms by the interaction of their electrons in the outermost energy level

chemical reaction

Atoms of elements or compounds interact to form at least one new compound

valence

The number of electrons lost or gained to complete an element's outer energy level

ionic bond

A bond formed by the electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions

two atoms exchange electrons and become ions

An ionic bond occurs when:

+1, -1, +2, -2, +3, -3

Which valences have the greatest tendency to form ions?

anion

A negatively charged ion is called a(n)

cation

A positively charged ion is called a(n)

complete

alence is the number of electrons an atom must gain or lose in order to ______ its outer energy level or have a stable octet.

False

All the subatomic particles participate in chemical reactions. TRUE or FALSE

energy

An electron in the second energy level has more____than an electron in the first energy level.

1.an electron may change to an excited state
2.an electron may move to a higher energy level

If an atom is supplied with excess energy:

to rearrange its configuration to result in a complete outer energy level

Chemical reactions are the result of an atom attempting:

True

Atoms which possess completed outer energy level or have a stable octet are inert. TRUE or FALSE

when less than half of the outer energy level is filled

When will an atom give up electrons?

Na+

How is a sodium ion symbol
written?

-is the attraction of two oppositely charged ions
-involves actual transfer of electrons

An ionic bond:

8, 18

The first (n=1) energy level of an atom contains a maximum of 2 electrons, the second (n=2) energy level contains a maximum of ___, and the third (n=3) energy level contains a maximum of ___

0, 2, -2

Element:Oxygen
Electrons Can Donate:
Electrons Can Receive:
Valence (incl. + or -):

-1, 0, 1

Element:Chlorine
Electrons Can Donate:
Electrons Can Receive:
Valence (incl. + or -):

acid

Donates a hydrogen atom during disassociation.

base

Capable of combining with hydrogen; it normally donates a hydroxyl (OH-)

covalent bond

A chemical bond formed between two atoms by the sharing of electrons

hydrogen bond

An intermolecular force occuring between a hydrogen atom and fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms

covalent bond

A water molecule is held together by a

hydrogen bonds

Water molecules are attracted to each other by

False

A hydrogen bond is completed by the transfer of its sole electron to another element. TRUE or FALSE

the sharing of electrons by two or more atoms

A covalent bond is:

--an attraction between polar molecules
--inter-molecular force between hydrogen and oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen

characteristics of a hydrogen bond:

covalent

A bond of the following elements would be of what type? C + 4H

covalent

A bond of the following elements would be of what type? 2H + O

ionic

A bond of the following elements would be of what type? Na + Cl

ionic

A bond of the following elements would be of what type? Ca + 2Cl

organic

Any chemical compound which contains carbon.

solvent

A liquid which acts to dissolve or suspend solutes

cation

A positively charged ion; an atom which has lost an electron.

anion

A negatively charged ion; an atom which has gained an electron.

inorganic

A chemical compound not containing carbon.

salt

The compound formed by the ionic bonding of a cation and anion.

solute

A substance which is dissolved in a liquid.

pH

A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution

carbon

An organic molecule will always contain:

ionic bonds

Inorganic compounds are usually held together by

put together

The word "synthesize" means:

False

Water can only dissolve inorganic compounds.TRUE or FALSE

separate into ions

When salts are dissolved in water they:

not

Organic lipids will___dissolve in water.

base

A substance which yields a cation plus the hydroxyl ion in water is a(n):

acid

A substance which yields an anion plus a hydrogen ion is a(n):

7

The pH of water is___because it contains an equal amount of H+ and OH- ions.

cation

a positive ion

ion

an atom which has gained or lost electrons

anion

a negative ion

base

produces OH-ions when added to water

acid

produces H+ions when added to water

molecule

Identify this symbol.
H2O

cation

Identify this symbol.

anion

Identify this symbol.
Cl -

atom

Identify this symbol.
Ne

anion

Identify this symbol.
OH -

0 and 14

The pH scale ranges between__and__

strong acid

A pH of 2 indicates a(n):

strong base

A pH of 12 indicates a(n):

True

Salts help to maintain the natural ionic concentration of an organism. TRUE or FALSE

synthesis reaction

Salts help to maintain the natural ionic concentration of an organism.

catalyst

Accelerates a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction

chemical equilibrium

When a reversible reaction is occurring in both directions at the same rate

metabolism

All of the chemical reactions in the organism for maintenance of the processes of life

buffer

A substance which will resist changes in pH within reasonable limits

enzyme

A protein molecule which speeds up a specific chemical reaction in biological systems

reversible reaction

The reactants used to form the products can also be synthesized from those products

product

That which is produced as a result of a chemical reaction

activation energy

The energy required to start a chemical reaction

exchange reaction

A chemical reaction where the substrates trade constituent parts

Law of Mass Action

The concentration of reactant product influences the rate and net direction of a reversible reaction

decomposition

The compound is broken into its constituent parts

reversible

The products and reactants of a(n) _____ will form at the same rate when equilibrium is attained.

energy input

What is required for reactants to form bonds?

a compound partitions into its components

What occurs during a decomposition reaction?

exchange reaction

molecules rearrange and form new molecules

synthesis reaction

bonds broken and elements released

reversible reaction

molecules formed from components

exchange reaction

simultaneous decomposition and synthesis

synthesis

A(n)_______reaction occurs when a molecule is formed from the bonding of atoms, ions or simpler molecules.

reversible

a_____reaction occurs when the reactants are reproduced by reaction of the products.

exchange

a______reaction occurs when the bonds of the reacting compounds are broken and new combinations are formed.

decomposition

an_____reaction occurs when ionic or covalent bonds are broken and elements, ions, or simpler molecules are formed.

True

When fats decompose in an organism, energy is released. TRUE or FALSE

synthesis, growth, repair,decomposition, energy release,reversible reactions, equilibrium,synthesis and decomposition,exchange reactions, control of pH

Which processes are involved in metabolism?

reversible

Which type of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the products and reactants?

Law of Mass action or molecular concentration because they relate to the same principle

The rate and direction of reactions are greatly influenced by the:

metabolism

The process by which organisms decompose food and synthesize energy and tissue is

reactant

A substance which enters into a chemical reaction is called a

product

A substance which results from a one-way chemical reaction is called a

forward reaction rate equals reverse reaction rate

Chemical equilibrium results if:

False

Chemical reactions will occur independently of the reactant's temperature. TRUE or FALSE

friction

In the chemical reaction that takes place in the lighting of a match, activation energy is supplied by _____.

nucleic acid

A sequence of sugars, phosphates and nitrogenous organic bases

protein

Large number of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds

nucleic acid

A sugar or polymer of sugar

polymer

Two or more simpler molecules strung together

polymerization

Two or more similar molecules unite, forming a larger complex molecule

lipid

A group of organic compounds including fats and steroids

amino acid

basic units of proteins

polymerization

synthesis of repeating molecules

RNA

an acid located in the cell nucleus

carbohydrate

a polymer of sugar

hydrolysis

decomposition using water

four

How many electrons does carbon lack in its outer shell?

False

Carbon is ideally suited to form ionic bonds. TRUE or FALSE

False

Many elements bond to carbon by exchanging electrons. TRUE or FALSE

because it is capable of forming multiple covalent bonds

Why can carbon bond to many elements simultaneously?

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

most common elements which bond to carbon.

energy is released

What happens when organic molecules decompose?

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