Protein molecules that a accelerate the rate of specific chemical reactions without being changed themselves.
Breaks proteins into polypeptides and AA. Secreted in gastric juice in inactive form and activated by acid in stomach.
Piece of elastic connective tissue at the back of throat that covers the openings of passageway to the lungs during swallowing.
Cells in the stomach lining in gastric pits, makes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor in response to nervous or hormonal stimulation.
An inactive protein-digesting enzyme produced by gastric glands and activated to pepsin by acid in the stomach.
Open sore in lining of stomach, esophagus, or small intestine. Leading cause of ulcer is Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
Finger-like protrusions of he lining of he small intestine that participate in absorption of nutrients. Each contains a lacteal.
Rhythmic local constrictions of he intestine that mix food and digestive juices and speeds absorption by moving food mass over intestine wall.
Secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions into small intestine during digestion. The bicarbonate ions neutralize chyme making the environment in small intestine less acidic then stomach.
Made by liver and stored by gallbladder. Emulsifies fat allowing lipases to be more effective on fat.
Hormone released by the duodenum that signals the release of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions and stimulates the liver to secrete bile into gallbladder
Hormone released by the duodenum that stimulates the release of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes and causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile into duodenum.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Chronic condition in which acidic acid stomach contents leak back up into the esophagus damaging it and causing pain.
Inflammation on stomach lining that may decrease absorption of vitamins and minerals and may allow bacterial growth.
Hepatic portal circulation
System of blood vessels that collect nutrient-laden from digestive organs and delivers it to liver.
System that drains excess fluids from spaces between cells, transports fat-soluble substances from digestive tract.
Series of chemical reactions inside of an organism that results in the transformation of one molecule into another.
A molecule (not protein but sometimes a vitamin) that is necessary for the proper functioning of many enzymes.
The reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide,water, and energy in the form of ATP.
Metabolic intermediate formed during the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and AA. It is a 2-carbon compound attached to a molecule of CoA.
Citric acid cycle (krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle)
Stage in cellular respiration where 2 carbons from acetyl-CoA are oxidized. Producing 2 molecules of carbon dioxide.
Functional unit of kidney. Performs the job of filtering blood and maintaining fluid balance.