1.2 Keyterms

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Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676, Nathaniel led a rebellion of Virginia's small tobacco farmers. Because they had been refused help for an expedition against the Indians by the governor of Jamestown, the farmers raised their own army, marched against the Indians, and then attacked and burned Jamestown. It showed the conflict between the eastern aristocrats and the western farmers in the colonies.

William Bradford

was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. He was elected 30 times to be the governor and was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact.

Connecticut

was first settled by the Dutch, who moved from New Amsterdam, but major settlements didn't occur until the 1630s when English settlers pushed west from Massachusetts.it was a Crown Colony, a New England colony, and one of the 13 colonies that revolted against British rule during the American Revolution.

Deleware

originally settled by Sweden in the 1630s, was conquered by Holland in 1655 and then by England in the 1660s. The English renamed the region after Lord de la Warr. At first part of Pennsylvania, It was granted its own assembly in 1703. It was a middle colony.

Jonathan Edwards

The theology and preaching of him (1703 - 1753) was based on emotional appeals for conversion and salvation. He preached that faith was the determining factor when it came to salvation — not fate, wealth, or social status. His sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (1741) symbolizes the ideas and oratory of the Great Awakening. His writings and example shaped the American tradition of evangelism and revivalism. He was a Calvinist

Benjamin Franklin

was the most famous Enlightenment figure in colonial America and one of the most influential Founding Fathers. He was an author, printer, politician, scientist, inventor, statesman, and diplomat. He also was a member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence, an ambassador to France during the American Revolution, and a member of the Constitutional Convention.

enlightenment

was the 18th-century belief that humans could use reason to improve human happiness by identifying and describing the "natural" laws of physics and human relations. It shaped the thinking of future Revolutionary leaders in regards to the "rights of man." This type of thinkers such as John Locke and John-Jacque Rousseau influenced leaders such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin before troubles began in the 1770s. These new ideas were later used in declaring America's break from Great Britain

the general assembly of Virginia

In 1619, the Virginia Company promised settlers that they should have the rights of Englishmen, including a representative assembly. Later that year, it met at Jamestown and deliberated for five days. It was the first representative assembly in the English colonies

Georgia

In 1732, this colony was established by a private group of Englishmen. These founders wanted it to be a place where debtors could gain a new lease on life as small-scale farmers. In 1752, the founders abandoned the venture, and it became a royal colony. It was a Southern colony.

great awakening

It of the 1740s was a wave of religious revivals that swept through the American colonies, Scotland, and parts of Germany. Some important results were the founding of denominational colleges, the disintegration of New England Puritanism, greater toleration of dissent, and greater respect for individual spiritual choices.

headright system

In 1618, the Virginia Company gave each settler a "headright" of land for paying his own way or bringing in others. it was adopted in many Southern colonies and resulted in people coming over as indentured servants. The people who paid for their passage became wealthy landowners in the colony

Thomas Hooker

founded Hartford. In 1662, he obtained a royal charter to establish the colony of Connecticut.

Anne Hutchinson

arrived in Boston in 1631 and became well respected as a midwife. She was married and a mother of fifteen. she was outspoken with her belief that individuals could communicate directly with God. She was banished from her colony because the Puritan ministry saw her leadership as a woman and a free thinker as a threat to its authority

indentured servitude

were people contracted to work on someone else's land, usually for around five years, before they were able to acquire land on their own. This was a common way for settlers who couldn't afford passage to travel to America. It was most common in the Southern colonies

Iroquois league

was formed in the early 1600s by the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk tribes, who lived in what is now upstate New York and lower Canada. It shaped events on British and French borders in North America for much of the 17th and 18th centuries and was one of many inspirations for the U.S. Constitution. The Tuscarora migrated from North Carolina and joined the league in 1720.

Jamestown

established in 1607, was the first permanent English colony in the New World. It was a commercial enterprise of merchants and investors called the "London Company." After not finding gold or a water route to the Pacific, the settlement finally turned to agriculture and eventually found economic success by growing tobacco. The importation of African slaves started in the colony of Virginia. The first Africans were brought here and sold as laborers in 1619

John Locke

helped shape American ideas of individual rights and just government. he said that if a monarch failed to protect the property and lives of his or her subjects, people had the right to rebel and establish a government that would give them security and dignity. Free citizens of a just government could claim other rights, Locke added. Among these were the natural rights to life, liberty, and private property, as well as the right to freedom of speech. His ideas became the basis of the Declaration of Independence.

Maryland

was originally settled as a haven for persecuted Catholics. Lord Baltimore received its charter as a proprietary colony in 1632. it was governed by a representative assembly, which passed the Act of Toleration in 1649. The act guaranteed toleration for all Christians, but it demanded the death penalty for groups that denied the divinity of Jesus. It was one of the Southern colonies

Massachussetts Bay

was a New England colony. It was founded and settled by nonseparatist reformers known as "Puritans," who wanted to purify the Church of England from within. The colony received a royal charter in 1629, and in 1630, its members founded several New England communities, including Boston and Salem.

Mayflower Compact

was the first governing document of the Plymouth Colony. It was an agreement to create a society based upon rules chosen by its members. The colonists agreed to "covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation." It was the first written governing document in the new English colonies

New Hampshire

a New England colony, was founded in the 1630s as a fishing and trading settlement on the Atlantic coast. It was absorbed into the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1641 based on a controversial interpretation of the Massachusetts charter. In 1679, King Charles II ruled against Massachusetts and granted New Hampshire its own charter as a royal colony

New Jersey

In 1664, the Duke of York granted this state the area between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, to English proprietors. To attract settlers to it the proprietors offered land on easy terms. They also promoted freedom of religion and a democratic local government. It was a middle colony.

new lights

were Americans who embraced the Great Awakening. They were more evangelical than their religious forbearers and tended toward zealotry. They expanded their influence during the Great Awakening

New York

In 1664, the British took New Amsterdam from the Dutch, and renamed the colony. As a middle colony, it had more ethnic and religious diversity than any of the other American colonies.

William Penn

), a Quaker, was given a land grant to start a colony. He began Pennsylvania as a "holy experiment." He advocated fair and equal treatment of Native Americans, all Christians were entitled to worship as they chose, and individual rights were protected as they were in New Jersey.

Pennsylvania

middle colony, was settled by the Dutch in the 1640s, captured by the English in the 1660s, and organized by English charter in 1681. The charter was given to William Penn, who established the colony as a place of religious refuge for Quakers and other religious minorities. It quickly became home to many ethnicities and religions. Politics in this state was marked by conflict between the Quakers and those who backed aristocratic interests.

pilgrims

They were English Separatists. They believed that God had selected some people, the "elect," to enjoy eternal salvation and that others would be forever damned. They denied themselves earthly pleasures to make sure they were among the "elect." They didn't tolerate those who didn't share their beliefs. In 1620, a group of these separatists who had moved to Holland left for America on the Mayflower and founded the new colony of Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay in present-day Massachusetts.

Plymouth

Colony was established in 1620. It was peopled by a group of separatists who had moved to Holland, left for America on the Mayflower, and founded the new colony of it on Cape Cod Bay in present-day Massachusetts. By 1691, it still had no charter and only about 7,000 inhabitants. It then merged with the larger Massachusetts Bay Colony

puritans

were Radical Protestants of 16th- and 17th-century England who wanted to purify the Anglican Church of its Catholic influences. Their desire for self-rule led them to the New World, where they settled in the Massachusetts Bay area. They were generally industrious, well educated, and somewhat prosperous. they saw their community as divinely inspired, and they selected John Winthrop as the first governor of Massachusetts. They established an elected legislature and judicial system where only male church members could vote. Church became the center of life in the community.

quakers

were founded in 17th-century England as the "Religious Society of Friends." They were a radical reformation religious group that practiced pacifism and tolerance. Major characteristics of the colonies of New Jersey and Pennsylvania were the guarantee of civil rights, ethnic diversity, and the availability of land.

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