an assemblage of populations living close enough for potential interaction and described by it's species composition.
is relationships with other species in the community
are two different species compete for the same limited resource (squirrels and black bears and compete for acoms)
is the sum of an organism's use of biotic andabiotic resources.
Interspecific competition occurs
When the ecological niches of two different species overlap, they may compete for the same limited resource, resulting in a direct negative effect on the reproductive fitness of both species
Another type of interspecific interactions involves a mutually beneficial (win-win) relationship, called mutualism
is an interaction where one species eats another. Benefits the predator but kills the prey
the consumer is
the predator and the food species is the prey
prey adapt using protective strategies
are camouflage, mechanical defenses, and chemical defenses.
warming coloration of a dangerous species copied by non toxic species
Plants have also evolved different defense strategies to avoid being eaten by animals, such as thorns, spines and chemical toxins
plants have numerous defenses
against herbivores like spines and thorns and chemical toxins
Parasites and Pathogens +/-
Parasites live on or inside a host and obtains nourishment from the host.
a pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels
a food chain is
the stepwise food transfer up the trophic levels: from plants (producers), to herbivores (primary consumer), and to carnivores (secondary and higher-level consumers).
capture solar energy and convert it to the chemical energy of carbohydrates
herbivores that eat the producers
small carnivores. They eat the primary consumers
larger carnivores that eat the secondary consumers.
at the top of the food chain. They are even larger carnivores that eat the tertiary consumers.
a food web is
a network of interconnecting food chains and a more realistic view of trophic structure than a food chain.
refers to the species richness (number of different species in a community) and relative abundance (how abundant a species is in that community)
exerts strong control on community structure because of its ecological role.
a keystone predator maintains
community diversity by reducing the numbers of the strongest competitors
The gradual change in the type of species found in an area that has been disturbed
begins with small seedlings in an area with no soil
occurs where a disturbance has cleared away an existing community but left the soil intact, ex an abandoned farm field that is eventually transformed into a hardwood forest of oak and maple trees
Non-native species are often introduced to new habitats, sometimes by accident (seeds, eggs, or small insects carried by wind, animals or inanimate objects), and sometimes intentionally by humans.