A system of communication through the use of speech and possibly writing, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents. The language often predominates in all public spheres of the country.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language or dialect usages predominate.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
The dialect of English associated With upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history and a common geographic origin.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
A new and stable language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated. Haitian creole comes of rom French and African languages.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
A language that was once used by people in their daily activities but is no longer used.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. Results from the interaction of two or more cultures. As a pidgin evolves and is spoken by more people, developing grammar, it becomes a creole.
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Indo-European Language Family
The largest language family spoken by 48% of the world's population. It grew out of Europe and Asia and comprises hundreds of modern languages and dialects. It's eight main branches include Albanian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic (English), Greek, Indo-Iranian, and Romance.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages. Examples include English, Chinese, and Swahili.
Language created by people who speak different languages. Instead of learning each other's language, they develop a new language to conduct trade and participate in other interactions.
Languages that descend from Latin, the language spoken throughout the Roman Empire two millennia ago. Latin blended with many other languages throughout the empire and birthed new languages that make up this group including Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian, and Portuguese.
Linguistic Refuge Area
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived.
The name given to a portion of Earth's' surface; place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.