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False

Financial accounting is the process of identifying, measuring, analyzing, and communicating financial information needed by management to plan, evaluate, and control an organization's operations.

True

Financial statements are the principal means through which financial information is communicated to those outside an enterprise.

True

Users of the financial information provided by a company use that information to make capital allocation decisions.

True

An effective process of capital allocation promotes productivity and provides an efficient market for buying and selling securities and obtaining and granting credit.

False

Financial reports in the early 21st century did not provide any information about a company's soft assets.

False

Accounting standards are now less likely to require the recording or disclosure of fair value information due to its inherent subjectivity.

False

While objectives for financial reporting exist on an informal basis, no formal objectives have been adopted.

False

One weakness of accrual accounting is that it does not provide a good indication of the enterprise's present and continuing ability to generate favorable cash flows.

True

Some generally accepted accounting principles have simply been accepted as appropriate because of their universal application rather than due to the action of an authoritative accounting rule-making body.

True

Users of financial accounting statements have both coinciding and conflicting needs for information of various types.

False

The Securities and Exchange Commission appointed the Committee on Accounting Procedure.

False

The passage of a new FASB Standards Statement requires the support of five of the seven board members.

True

Financial Accounting Concepts set forth fundamental objectives and concepts that are used in developing future standards of financial accounting and reporting.

True

The AICPA created the Accounting Principles Board in 1959.

False

FASB Technical Bulletins are more authoritative than FASB Standards and Interpretations.

True

The AICPA's Code of Professional Conduct requires that members prepare financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

False

Accounting standards are a product of careful logic or empirical findings and are not influenced by political action.

True

Currently, both U.S. GAAP and the International Financial Reporting Standards are acceptable for international use.

True

The expectations gap is caused by what the public thinks accountants should be doing and what accountants think they can do.

False

Ethical issues in financial accounting are governed by the AICPA.

General-purpose financial statements are the product of
a. financial accounting
b. managerial accounting
c. both financial and managerial accounting
d. neither financial nor managerial accounting

financial accounting

Users of financial reports include all of the following except
a. creditors
b. government agencies
c. unions
d. all of these are users

all of these are users

The financial statements most frequently provided include all of the following except the
a. balance sheet
b. income statement
c. statement of cash flows
d. statement of retained earnings.

statement of retained earnings

The information provided by financial reporting pertains to
a. individual business enterprises, rather than to industries or an economy as a whole or
to members of society as consumers.
b. business industries, rather than to individual enterprises or an economy as a whole or
to members of society as consumers.
c. individual business enterprises, industries, and an economy as a whole, rather than to
members of society as consumers.
d. an economy as a whole and to members of society as consumers, rather than to
individual enterprises or industries.

individual business enterprises, rather than to industries or an economy as a whole or to members of society as consumers

All the following are differences between financial and managerial accounting in how accounting information is used except to
a. plan and control company's operations.
b. decide whether to invest in the company.
c. evaluate borrowing capacity to determine the extent of a loan to grant.
d. All the above.

all of the above

Which of the following represents a form of communication through financial reporting but
not through financial statements?
a. Balance sheet.
b. President's letter.
c. Income statement.
d. Notes to financial statements.

president's letter

The process of identifying, measuring, analyzing, and communicating financial information needed by management to plan, evaluate, and control an organization's operations is called
a. financial accounting.
b. managerial accounting.
c. tax accounting.
d. auditing.

managerial accounting

How does accounting help the capital allocation process attract investment capital?
a. Provides timely, relevant information.
b. Encourages innovation.
c. Promotes productivity.
d. a and b above.

provides timely, relevant information

Whether a business is successful and thrives is determined by
a. markets.
b. free enterprise.
c. competition.
d. all of these.

all of these

An effective capital allocation process
a. promotes productivity.
b. encourages innovation.
c. provides an efficient market for buying and selling securities.
d. all of these.

all of these

Financial statements in the early 2000s provide information related to
a. nonfinancial measurements.
b. forward-looking data.
c. hard assets (inventory and plant assets).
d. none of these.

hard assets (inventory and plant assets)

Which of the following is not a major challenge facing the accounting profession?
a. Nonfinancial measurements.
b. Timeliness.
c. Accounting for hard assets.
d. Forward-looking information.

accounting for hard assets

What is a major objective of financial reporting?
a. Provide information that is useful to management in making decisions.
b. Provide information that clearly portray nonfinancial transactions.
c. Provide information that is useful to assess the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of
perspective cash receipts.
d. Provide information that excludes claims to the resources.

provide information that is useful to assess the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of perspective cash receipts

What is a major objective of financial reporting?
a. Provide information that is useful to the Internal Revenue Service in determining the
amount of federal income taxes payable.
b. Provide information that is useful in assessing the amounts and timing of revenue.
c. Provide information that is comprehensible only by sophisticated investors.
d. Provide information that clearly portrays the economic resources of an enterprise.

provide information that clearly portrays the economic resources of an enterprise

Which of the following statements is not an objective of financial reporting?
a. Provide information that is useful in investment and credit decisions.
b. Provide information about enterprise resources, claims to those resources, and
changes to them.
c. Provide information on the liquidation value of an enterprise.
d. Provide information that is useful in assessing cash flow prospects.

provide information on the liquidation value of an enterprise

Accrual accounting is used because
a. cash flows are considered less important.
b. it provides a better indication of ability to generate cash flows than the cash basis.
c. it recognizes revenues when cash is received and expenses when cash is paid.
d. none of the above.

it provides a better indication of ability to generate cash flows than the cash basis

One objective of financial reporting is to provide
a. information about the investors in the business entity.
b. information about the liquidation values of the resources held by the enterprise.
c. information that is useful in assessing cash flow prospects.
d. information that will attract new investors.

information is useful in assessing cash flow prospects

Accounting principles are "generally accepted" only when
a. an authoritative accounting rule-making body has established it in an official pro-
nouncement.
b. it has been accepted as appropriate because of its universal application.
c. both a and b.
d. neither a nor b.

both a and b

A common set of accounting standards and procedures are called
a. financial accounting standards.
b. generally accepted accounting principles.
c. objectives of financial reporting.
d. statements of financial accounting concepts.

generally accepted accounting principles

Which of the following is a general limitation of "general purpose financial statements"?
a. General purpose financial statements may not be the most informative for a specific
enterprise.
b. General purpose financial statements are comparable.
c. General purpose financial statements are assumed to present fairly the company's
financial operations.
d. None of the above.

general purpose financial statements may not be the most informative for a specific enterprise

What is the relationship between the Securities and Exchange Commission and accounting standard setting in the United States?
a. The SEC requires all companies listed on an exchange to submit their financial
statements to the SEC.
b. The SEC coordinates with the AICPA in establishing accounting standards.
c. The SEC has a mandate to establish accounting standards for enterprises under its
jurisdiction.
d. The SEC reviews financial statements for compliance.

the SEC has a mandate to establish accounting standards for enterprises under its jurisdiction

What is due process in the context of standard setting at the FASB?
a. FASB operates in full view of the public.
b. Public hearings are held on proposed accounting standards.
c. Interested parties can make their views known.
d. All of the above.

all of the above

Which of the following organizations has been responsible for setting U.S. accounting standards?
a. Accounting Principles Board.
b. Committee on Accounting Procedure.
c. Financial Accounting Standards Board.
d. All of the above.

all of the above

Why did the AICPA create the Accounting Principles Board?
a. The SEC disbanded the previous standard setting organization.
b. The previous standard setting organization did not provide a structured set of
accounting principles.
c. No such organization existed in the past.
d. None of the above.

the previous standard setting organization did not provide a structured set of accounting principles

Which organization was responsible for issuing Accounting Research Bulletins?
a. Accounting Principles Board.
b. Committee on Accounting Procedure.
c. The SEC.
d. AICPA.

committee on accounting procedure

A characteristic of generally accepted accounting principles include the following
a. common set of standards and principles.
b. standards and principles are based federal statutes.
c. acceptance requires an affirmative vote of Certified Public Accountants.
d. practices that become accepted for at least a year by all industry members.

common set of standards and principles

Characteristics of generally accepted accounting principles include all of the following except
a. authoritative accounting the rule-making body established a principle of reporting.
b. standards are considered useful by the profession.
c. each principle is approved by the SEC.
d. practice has become universally accepted over time.

each principle is approved by the SEC

Why was it believed that accounting standards that were issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board would carry more weight?
a. Smaller membership.
b. FASB board members are well-paid.
c. FASB board members must be CPAs.
d. Due process.

due process

The passage of a new FASB Standards Statement requires the support of
a. all Board members.
b. three Board members.
c. four Board members.
d. five Board members.

three board members

What is the purpose of Emerging Issues Task Force?
a. Provide interpretation of existing standards.
b. Provide a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions.
c. Provide interpretive guidance.
d. Provide timely guidance on select issues.

provide a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions

Which organization is responsible for issuing Emerging Issues Task Force Statements?
a. FASB
b. CAP
c. APB
d. SEC

FASB

The role of the Securities and Exchange Commission in the formulation of accounting principles can be best described as
a. consistently primary.
b. consistently secondary.
c. sometimes primary and sometimes secondary.
d. non-existent.

sometimes primary and sometimes secondary

The body that has the power to prescribe the accounting practices and standards to be employed by companies that fall under its jurisdiction is the
a. FASB.
b. AICPA.
c. SEC.
d. APB.

SEC

Companies that are listed on a stock exchange are required to submit their financial statements to the
a. AICPA.
b. APB
c. FASB.
d. SEC.

SEC

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) was proposed by the
a. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
b. Accounting Principles Board.
c. Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.
d. Special Study Group on establishment of Accounting Principles (Wheat Committee).

special study group on establishment of accounting principles (wheat committee)

The Financial Accounting Standards Board
a. has issued a series of pronouncements entitled Statements on Auditing Standards.
b. was the forerunner of the current Accounting Principles Board.
c. is the arm of the Securities and Exchange Commission responsible for setting
financial accounting standards.
d. is appointed by the Financial Accounting Foundation.

is appointed by the financial accounting foundation

The Financial Accounting Foundation
a. oversees the operations of the FASB.
b. oversees the operations of the AICPA.
c. provides information to interested parties on financial reporting issues.
d. works with the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council to provide informa-
tion to interested parties on financial reporting issues.

oversees the operations of the FASB

The major distinction between the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and its predecessor, the Accounting Principles Board (APB), is
a. the FASB issues exposure drafts of proposed standards.
b. all members of the FASB are fully remunerated, serve full time, and are independent
of any companies or institutions.
c. all members of the FASB possess extensive experience in financial reporting.
d. a majority of the members of the FASB are CPAs drawn from public practice.

all members of the FASB possess extensive experience in financial reporting

The Financial Accounting Standards Board employs a "due process" system which
a. is an efficient system for collecting dues from members.
b. enables interested parties to express their views on issues under consideration.
c. identifies the accounting issues that are the most important.
d. requires that all accountants must receive a copy of financial standards.

enables interested parties to express their views on issues under consideration

Which of the following is not a publication of the FASB?
a. Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts
b. Accounting Research Bulletins
c. Interpretations
d. Technical Bulletins

accounting research bulletins

FASB Technical Bulletins
a. are similar to FASB Interpretations in that they establish enforceable standards under
the AICPA's Code of Professional Ethics.
b. are issued monthly by the FASB to deal with current topics.
c. are not expected to have a significant impact on financial reporting in general and
provide guidance when it does not conflict with any broad fundamental accounting
principle.
d. were recently discontinued by the FASB because they dealt with specialized topics
having little impact on financial reporting in general.

are not expected to have a significant impact on financial reporting in general and provide guidance when it does not conflict with any broad fundamental accounting principle

The purpose of the Emerging Issues Task Force is to
a. develop a conceptual framework as a frame of reference for the solution of future
problems.
b. lobby the FASB on issues that affect a particular industry.
c. do research on issues that relate to long-term accounting problems.
d. issue statements which reflect a consensus on how to account for new and unusual
financial transactions that need to be resolved quickly.

issue statements which reflect a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that need to be resolved quickly

The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) continues to be involved in all of the following except
a. developing and enforcing professional ethics.
b. developing auditing standards.
c. providing professional education programs.
d. all of the above.

developing auditing standards

Which of the following pronouncements were issued by the Accounting Principles Board?
a. Accounting Research Bulletins
b. Opinions
c. Statements of Position
d. Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts

opinions

Which of the following organizations has not been instrumental in the development of financial accounting standards in the United States?
a. AICPA
b. FASB
c. IASB
d. SEC

IASB

An organization that has not published accounting standards is the
a. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
b. Securities and Exchange Commission.
c. Financial Accounting Standards Board.
d. All of these have published accounting standards.

all of these have published accounting standards

The purpose of Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts is to
a. establish GAAP.
b. modify or extend the existing FASB Standards Statement.
c. form a conceptual framework for solving existing and emerging problems.
d. determine the need for FASB involvement in an emerging issue.

form a conceptual framework for solving existing and emerging problems

Members of the Financial Accounting Standards Board are
a. employed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).
b. part-time employees.
c. required to hold a CPA certificate.
d. independent of any other organization.

independent of any other organization

The following published documents are part of the "due process" system used by the FASB in the evolution of a typical FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards:
1. Exposure Draft
2. Statement of Financial Accounting Standards
3. Preliminary Views
The chronological order in which these items are released is as follows:
a. 1,2,3.
b. 1,3,2.
c. 2,3,1.
d. 3,1,2.

3,1,2

Generally accepted accounting principles
a. include detailed practices and procedures as well as broad guidelines of general
application.
b. are influenced by pronouncements of the SEC and IRS.
c. change over time as the nature of the business environment changes.
d. all of these.

all of these

The most significant current source of generally accepted accounting principles is the
a. AICPA.
b. SEC.
c. APB.
d. FASB.

FASB

Which of the following is not a part of generally accepted accounting principles?
a. FASB Interpretations
b. CAP Accounting Research Bulletins
c. APB Opinions
d. All of these are part of generally accepted accounting principles.

all of these are part of generally accepted accounting principles

Which of the following publications does not qualify as a statement of generally accepted accounting principles?
a. Statements of financial standards issued by the FASB
b. Accounting interpretations issued by the FASB
c. APB Opinions
d. Accounting research studies issued by the AICPA

accounting research studies issued by the AICPA

Rule 203 of the Code of Professional Conduct address:
a. ethical requirements.
b. financial statements should be based on generally accepted accounting principles.
c. advertising to obtained clients.
d. auditing financial statements.

financial statements should be based on generally accepted accounting principles

What is the purpose of a FASB Staff Position?
a. Provide interpretation of existing standards.
b. Provide a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions.
c. Provide interpretive guidance.
d. Provide timely guidance on select issues.

provide interpretive guidance

Which of the following is not considered a component of generally accepted accounting principles?
a. FASB Implementation Guides.
b. Widely recognized industry practices.
c. Articles published in CPA journals.
d. AICPA Accounting Interpretations.

articles published in CPA journals

Financial accounting standard-setting in the United States
a. can be described as a social process which reflects political actions of various
interested user groups as well as a product of research and logic.
b. is based solely on research and empirical findings.
c. is a legalistic process based on rules promulgated by governmental agencies.
d. is democratic in the sense that a majority of accountants must agree with a standard
before it becomes enforceable.

can be described as a social process which reflects political actions of various interested user groups as well as a product or research and logic

The purpose of the International Accounting Standards Board is to
a. issue enforceable standards which regulate the financial accounting and reporting of
multinational corporations.
b. develop a uniform currency in which the financial transactions of companies through-
out the world would be measured.
c. promote uniform accounting standards among countries of the world.
d. arbitrate accounting disputes between auditors and international companies.

promote uniform accounting standards among countries of the world

What is not a source of pressure that may influence the accounting standard setting process?
a. Congress.
b. Lobbyist.
c. CPA firms.
d. None of the above.

none of the above

What is a possible danger if politics plays too big a role in accounting standard setting?
a. Accounting standards that are not truly generally accepted.
b. Individuals may influence the standards.
c. User groups become active.
d. The FASB delegates its authority to elected officials.

accounting standards that are not truly generally accepted

What is "expectation gap"?
a. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is not doing and what
the accountant knows they don't do.
b. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is doing and what Congress says the accountant is doing.
c. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is doing and what the
accountant thinks they can do.
d. The difference between what the accountant is doing and what the Courts say the
accountant should be doing.

the difference between what the public thinks the accountant is doing and what the accountant thinks they can do

What is not a reason that accounting standards may differ across countries?
a. Governments.
b. Language.
c. Culture.
d. Past Practice.

language

What would be an advantage of having all countries adopt and follow the same accounting standards?
a. Consistency.
b. Comparability.
c. Lower preparation costs.
d. b and c

b and c

Which of the following is an ethical concern of accountants?
a. Earnings manipulation.
b. Conservative accounting.
c. Industry practices.
d. None of the above.

earnings manipulation

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