measured rates of behaviors in the absence of treatment. The child's skill level before treatment
evaluate child's progress over time, establish treatment effectiveness, establish clinician accountability
baselines are used to
write the goal, prepare stimulus items, prepare recording sheet, administer baseline trials
four steps to administering baselines
client's age, cultural background, linguistic abilities
things to consider when preparing stimulus items to administer baselines
what is the least amount of items/ target behaviors that should be prepared for administering baselines?
daily, short-term, long-term goals
types of goals needed to hold a therapy session
criteria for daily goal, reinforcement plan, activities for each goal, courage, enthusiasm, planning time, materials to use
things you need to hold a therapy session
long term goals
what the client will accomplish when therapy is completed. (IEP in Utah can be up to 3 years)
normative data, developmental charts, intelligibility, stimulability, family concerns, personal gut feeling
select articulation goals based upon your professional judgment from..
short term goals
where you think the client can be at the end of the semester (school year)
phoneme, position, level of complexity, and criteria
all goals should state..
a goal must be justified by..
criteria for a goal should be
baseline data, therapy approach, and post-data
progress on a goal must include
plan goas, reinforcement, and activities; plan criteria for advancement; use daily therapy plan and log sheet
before therapy session
follow plan but be flexible
during therapy session
relax, determine daily performance, figure out percentages, fil out daily therapy plan and log
how you feel child performed
the criteria achieved
why child may have performed the way he/she did
what you will work on in next session
approach to therapy that is easy, hard, easy
Charles Van Riper in late 1930s
Who developed the traditional articulation therapy approach and when?
children with few articulation errors and mostly developmental
who does traditional articulation therapy work on best?
baseline data and stimulability testing
what will tell you where to begin with traditional articulation therapy?
discrimination training, stimulability, sound stabilization, generalization, maintenance
steps of articulation therapy approach
ear training; can child listen and decide between error and correct production
clinician-client and client-client
two types of discrimination training
clinician produces sounds and sees if client can recognize the sound; client may hold up a red/ green light car, happy/ unhappy face card etc.
client records themselves producing sounds, listens to recording and holds up the cards when he recognizes the sound
teach correct placement and production. Sometimes the hardest part of therapy. TEACH IT RIGHT
a stimulability item that demonstrates proper air flow
a stimulability item that words well with child having a had time differentiating oral vs. nasal production
similar to a palatometer; can see own tongue placements
amplifies what child hears
auditory stimulation/ imitation, use of context, moto-kinesthetic, sound approximation (shaping)
use of context
pair with sounds that make it easier to produce
move the articulators with gloved fingers, tongue depressor, etc.
shaping, go from /t/ to /s/ by holding out the /t/, from /s/ to /th/ etc.
expanding the productions in which the sound occurs; moving up the linguistic levels
to help with this step generate more natural practice situations to make production more natural and automatic; often the other toughest part of therapy
speech assignments, speech buddy, clear speech time periods, involve parents
examples of ways to improve generalization
give a report on..
read aloud each day..
listens and gives feedback during day; comes to therapy to report at times
clear speech time periods
specific times each day when have to focus on speech production (start with 10-15 min)
keep data at home; report in each session; keep informed; involve in therapy
progressive check up of client to see that productions remain correct (1 month, 3 month, 6 months)
training deep approach
a select number of sounds is taught intensively
training broad approach
simultaneous teaching of multiple targets
which approach is the training deep approach usually utilized?
which approach is the training broad approach usually utilized?