Where did AMHSS initially emerge from?
Where did the AMHSS first migrate to?
35K BP, in Europe, were hunters & gatherers, do not know the separation of labor, made fantastic cave art and portable venus figurines
Grotte de Chauvet, France
36K BP, recently discovered cave art in france, along with 55 bear skulls considered for some kind of ritual -- associated with Cro Magnon
Cosquer Cave, France
cave is now 65ft below sea level, 27-19K BP, art on wall in caves; handprints & animals all done in charcoal, Venus figurines --> 25K BP, associated with cro magnons & homo sapiens sapiens
This type of art first seen in the upper paleolithic, europe, 35K BP, Venus Figurines
Lifeways of Cro Magnon
Successful adaptation to harsh and unpredictable conditions like winter, sites produce abundant bones from large animals, collected & processed plant foods, probably had storage capabilities & art demonstrates sophisticated symbolic expression & communication
found in europe, made in upper paleolithic, carved from bone and stone and fired clay by the cro magnons in 25k BP, purpose is unknown
Out of Africa Theory
1993: Stringer & Gamble: proposes that homo sapiens evolved from middle homo (homo erectus) one time in southern africa and spread all over & overcompeted with other hominims.
1984: Wolpoff et a. Alan Thorne: suggests that Homo sapiens evolved from middle homo in a number of places and the populations al interbred so that modern human beings are all similar.
38-18k BP, the last hominim?, "the hobbit", 3' tall, small brain like chimpanzee, hss teeth, fully bipedal, tools in with remains, thought to have hunted kimono dragons (8-12 ft long)
Theories of Homo Florensiensis
1- homo erectus moved to island & got much, much smaller, 2 - genetic disorder microsethan, 3 - related to another hominim from asia that hasn't been found bc pelvis looks like lucy
Willandra Lakes - Australia
30-40k BP, freshwater shell midden & human skeletal remains of AMHSS
Kow Swamp - Australia
Alan Thorne, 13-10k BP, remains of 22 individuals, much more recent than other site in Australia, Willandra Lakes. Skeletons show archaic traits; big brow ridges, big faces, long low skulls, sloping foreheads
D'uktai Cave - Eastern Siberia
Yuri Mochanov, 14k BP min, megafauna/mammoth/musk ox bones, large stone choppers, projectile points & microblades
Found in D'uktai Cave in Eastern Siberia, new technology for making weapons, small, thin flakes are set into wood shafts
Ushki - Eastern Siberia
Nicholai Dikov, 13k BP, site with remains of megafauna; mammoth, bison, reindeer & salmon
the area between northeasternmost siberia and north america that would have been crossed in colonization of the new world. Is now below sea level but used to be dry land.
Beringia, 24-17k BP
too much ice covering the passage between northeasternmost siberia and north america, was impassable (LGM = 20k BP)
Beringia, 15/14.7-14k BP
passage between northeasternmost siberia and north america was 'ice free corridor model' (also the coastal corridor) was flat treeless, windswept plain, populated by large animals; mammoths, bison, horses & camels
Beringia, 12.9k BP
passage between northeasternmost siberia and north america was submerged, HSS were no longer able to walk over, had to use a boat.