complete set and separate from the blood vessels.
the fluid in the lymphatic vessels
plasma leave the BV wall to go to the tissue and the fluid is now termed this, then goes into the lymphatic vessel and then termed Lymphatic fluid. its all the same fluid
just like cardiovascular capillary however the lymphatic one is closed ended.
fluid balance, absorption, defense
three functions of the lymphatic system
3 L of interstitial fluid
how much fluid is not reabsorbed into the capillaries per day and stays in the interstitial space.
The lymphatic capillary
what vessel picks up the excess interstitial fluid
causes the cells of the lumen wall to split apart and fluid rushess into lymph vessel
what happens when the interstitial fluid has higher pressure on the outside of the lymphatic capillary than the inside of the lumen.
the lymphatic vessel cell walls to close up together so fluid can not move back out
when the pressure in the lymphatic capillary is greater inside the lumen than the outside it causes this.
what helps fluid flow through the lypmhatic vessels
putting substances into the vessels
hepatic portal vein
nutrients from the small intestine go into this blood vessel
where does the absorbed nutrients from the hepatic portal vein go to this organ.
the only nutrient that is not absorbed in the hepatic portal vein are these
the lipids are absorbed into lymphatic veins from the small intestine called these.
fat soluble vitamins that are absorbed by lympatic lacteles
lymphatic system defends the body against these substances
start in the fingertips
the closed end lymphatic capillaries start here
larger and larger
the lymphatic veins start small in the periferal and change in size as it gets ...
thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct
the two lymphatic vessels in the body
left subclavian vein
what BV does the thoracic duct empty into
right sublcavian vein
what BV does the right lymphatic duct empty into.
red bone marrow
major lymphatic organ, it makes the blood cells, WBC
in mature state
what state do the blood cells leave the red bone marrow except the T-cells
the immature T-cells leave the red bone marrow and are called these
the pre-T cells go to this gland over the heart to mature.
this substance heps T-cells mature in the thymus gland
how many lobes on the thymus
when does the thymus gland stop growing and begins to shrink
the lymphatic organ that filters the blood, left Upper quadrant, and is very vascular, blood reservoir
blood reservoir, fliters blood
two functions of the spleen are.
yes can live without it
can humans live without spleen
patches of reticular fibers with b- cells, t- cells, and NK cells, and macrophages.
little patches of lymphatic tissue embedded in mucuous membranes that lines body cavities
lines any body cavity that opens to the outside
mucous membranes are lining the vagina, GI tract and respiratory tract because.
the three largest lymphatic nodules are
the tonsils in the back of the nose
the tonsils in the back of the throat
the tonsils in theback of the tongue
the pharyngeal tonsils are aka
the pharyngeal and palatine tonsils are removed in this procedure
these are always within the lymphatic vessel, and are encapsulated
reticular fibers, b, t, nk cells and macrophages
what is inside the lymphnode
afferent lymph vessel
the vessel that leads to the lymphnode is this
efferent lymph vessel
the vessel that leads away from the lymphnode is this
lymphnodes tend to cluster to areas of entry like this in the neck
nodes in the armpits are called
inguinal lymphnodes are located here.
2 days (4-6L of total blood volume)
3 L per/day of plasma is absorbed in the lymphatic vessels and is filtered every __ days and returned to the blood
lymphatic system provide most of these to protect us to be healthy
non specific defenses
type of defense we all are born with. they act the same way toward any invading antigen, no memory
defenses that are aquire during the lifetime, make a memory of all infection, and then to never get that again. like chicken pox
anything that the body percieves as being foreign.
disease causing antigens
what each were exposed to
why are specific defenses different in each individual.
first line defense
non specific defense category - surface barriers physically prevent something coming into the body or removes pathogens from surface of body
skin, mucous membrane, tears, and sweat.
examples of non specific - first line defense
second line defense
non specific defense - where the pathogens have entered the body and this type of defense is then activated
2nd line defense type of WBC's that eat the bacteria
2nd line defense where basophils that produce histamines to create this reaction
2nd line defense where the bacteria like to grow in this condition. The body increases its this to killoff the bacteria.
temperature, inflammatory response, and phagocytic cells, chemicals
the 4 types of second line of defense
two chemicals that help the basophils with the inflammatory response of 2nd line defense
group of 20 different plasma proteins that make this system for 2nd line defense and highly activated in any infection as a cascade event.
enhance the inflammatory response
complement group tells the basophils this due to the presence of infection doing this -
complement protein C3b holds onto a macrophage and a pathogen to enhance the macrophage to eat the pathogen.
Big Mac attack
membrane attack complex, where several complement proteins come together to form a complex and beats holes in a pathogen membrane.
enhance inflammatory response, opsonization, big mac attack
the three responses of thecomplement proteins
these are activated from the presence of a virus. the host infected cell from a virus, will make these and distribute to neighboring unaffected cells and they bind on cell and warn them to make antiviral proteins.
if interferon is defective in the cell, the cells are vulnerable to this type of cancer.
third line defenses
specific defenses are these line of defense
humoral pathway, cell mediated pathway
the two pathways of the specific defenses are
the stuff in between the cells
target the extracellular antigens of the specific defense
cell mediated pathway
target the intracellular antigens of the specific defense.
foreign marker on an antigen
every antibody is not looking for an antigen it's looking for a ..
foreign marker of a antigen
when your body percieves your own marker as foreign
lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Lou Gerigs Dx., MS, are these where antigens perceives your own marker as foreign.
proteins made by differentiated b-cells that are plasma cells to kill antigens. gamma globulin or immunoglobulin aka
skin cells make keratin-protein, pancreas make insulin-protein
example of individual cells will make protiens if they require that protein
organelle that makes proteins and the antibody protein
the b-cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes and the genes within the chromosome will make this
the middle man for making antibody with the ribosome within the cell
T's in DNA, U's in RNA
the pattern of chromosomes for T's belong to this and the U's belong to this.
DNA - TAC GGG CGA GAT TTC
RNA copy codon sequence - AUG CCC GCU CUA AAG , what is the DNA
each group of 3 mRNA sequence, each one is specific for amino acids
how many different antibodies doesthebody make
order of DNA
red bone marrow contains HSC using a growth process, where differentiation involving shuffling DNA nucleotides of the antibody gene into a different __ in the b-cell
the antibody is shaped like a y and the stem of the y is called.. remains the same
the upper portion of the antibody "y" is called __ d/t the shuffling of the dna for each tobe ableto match every antigen possible
the chicken pox antibody
if the b - cell antibody ahas a specific variable region that is compatible with chicken pox. it is then dedicated as