They study how humans developed and related to one another. They focus on human society.
They hunt for evidence buried in the ground where settlements might once have been. They did up artifacts such as tools, weapons and other things made by humans. They also look for fossils.
Weapons, tools, pottery or other things made by man.
Traces of plants or animals preserved in rock.
People who move form place to place without a fixed home.
A period about 100,000 BC to about 8,000 BC when sheets of ice covered Europe, Asia and North America
The stone age -during the ice age
Middle stone ages when humans began to domesticate animals.
Tame animals for human use. Animals provided meat, milk and wool. They also carried goods. This allowed people to move less and form settled communities.
Refers to changes that greatly affect many areas of life.The farming revolution is considered one of the most important events in human history. It allowed for the growth of villages. Neolithic culture began.
During this age villages grew in Europe, India, China and Mexico. Farming and domestic animals allowed larger more permanent settlements
A neolithic city in the West Bank between Isreal and Jordan in the Middle East
A 6,000 person city in what is now Turkey. They lived in mud-brick houses and had farms and livestock.
With bigger cities and surplus food-there was the development of different types of jobs. Not everyone farmed or cared for animals. They were potters, weavers and a new type of clothes -wools cloth.
Complex societies, they have cities, organized governments, art, religion, class divisions and a writing system.
Means, "the land between rivers" the fertile crescent between Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. Between the Tigris and Euphrates. In modern day Iraq.
The building of walls, dams, ditches, and canals to control water flow and to bring water to fields. This technological device allowed for increased food and the growth of bigger more complex civilizations.
A region of Mesopotamia 3,000 years ago with many "city-states" Epic of Gilgamesh a long poem written by Sumerians.
Skilled workers who made metal, cloth or pottery products.
The first writing in Sumer describe transaction and life in Mesopotamia. mostly wealthy boys were taught to write.
Record people who could write the held a high position in society and often became judges or political figures.
A young king of Babylon (1792-1750 BC) He helped built the city Irrigation and roads but is most noted his code or collection of laws which covered crime, farming, business and family. The code created a standard of how all people should be treated. He conquered other Kingdoms and made the Babylonian Empire.
A group of many peoples under one ruler. Started with the conquering City States in Sumeria
An Akkadian king conquered other City States and created the first Empire
A vast empire in Mesopotamia at about 650 BC. They had a large organized government and military power. They had a large army.
They had foot soldiers with spears and daggers, bows and arrows and arrows, Chariots and horseback fighters. The Hittites taught them how to make hammered Iron weapons
The Capital of the Assyrian Empire on the Tigris river. They built the first Libraries.
Large body of rules laws many which were felt to be cruel. Law 22 someone caught in the act of robbery will be put to death.
A people who moved to Mesopotamia about 1,000 BC the Assyrians conquered them. They fought the Assyrians, they rebelled then joined with the Medes and defeated the Assyrians in 612BC
A Chaldean king who built his own empire. He captured Jerusalem and conquered the Kingdom of Judah. He sent the Jews to live in Babylon.
Groups of traveling merchants
The Persian empire conquered the Chaldeans in 539
Rapids created by narrow cliffs and boulder in the Nile.They prevent large ships from traveling the first part of the Nile.
The fertile area where the Nile branches out before reaching the Mediterranean Sea.
The largest dessert in the world
A reed that grew along the Nile which Egyptians used to make basket, sandals, rafts and paper
Combining pictures and symbols the Egyptian system of writing.
A line of rulers from one family
Egyptian kings, they lived in great houses with their families.
Gods and goddesses who controlled the forces of nature.
A method for preserving a dead body, invented by the Egyptians.Organs removed and then special salts applied
A wrapped preserved body
A huge stone structure built by Egytians to serve as tombs for the dead (usually Pharoahs)
An Egyptian Pharoah who reigned at 2540 BC the pyramid at Giza was built for him. It is the largest pyramid. Early Kingdom
The Capital of Egypt in the early Kingdom in Egypt.
An age of prosperity and achievement from 2050 to 1067 BC in Egypt.
The Capital of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom in Egypt.
A payment made by one group or nation to another to show obedience or obtain peace and protection.
People from Western Asia who attacked Egypt. They had Chariots and conquered Egypt. They ruled Egypt for 150 year until 1550
An Egyptian prince who led an uprising and threw the Hyksos out of Egypt
The first woman Pharoah 1473, she was interested in trade and did not focus on war and military. She brought wood form the Phoenicians.
A Middle Kingdom Pharoah known for expanding Egypt's boundaries to North of the Euphrates River. Regained control of Nubia.
Also known as Amenhotep. Was a Pharoah who tried to change Egypt's religion and take power form Egyptian priests. He was married to Nefertiti.1370 BC He lost lands in Western Asia.
A Pharoah in the Middle Kingdom.
He suceeded Akhenoton as Pharoah and was 10 years old.
Considered the greatest Pharaoh he ruled for 66 years 1279. Restored damaged temples and built great temples. Built the temple of Karnak.
Served as houses of the gods and banks for storage of valuables and precious goods.
A strong civilization in Sudan. A region later known as Kush.
A Kingdom of Nubian Villages
A strong civilization the Southern Nile .
A grassy plain
Ancient Capital of Kush.
A powerful Kushite leader who began to attack Egypt in 750 BC. His son later conquered Egypt.
A Kushite leader who conquered Egypt. He is the son of Kashta.
The Capital City of Kush when they ruled Egypt.
The belief in one God, the Isrealites introduced the idea.
They came from Mesopotamia and were herder and traders. There religion is the foundation of the Jewish religion.
The Kigndom of the Israelites where Lebanon, Israel and Jordon are today.
The language of the Israealite and modern Jews.
A Biblical figure, the Israelites believed they descended from him and he told them to leave Mesopotamia and move to Canaan.
A Biblical figure grandson of Abraham also called Israel. His name means "one who struggles with God."
According to the Bible Jacob raised 12 sons in Canaan and they became the 12 tribes of Israel.
According to the Bible an Israelite child raised by a Pharoah's sister. He was a prophet led the Israelites out of Egypt after the 10 plagues. Parted the red sea and received the 10 commandments from God on Mount Sinai.
The mountain which Moses climbed and received the laws from God
The laws from Gods which became the first Hebrew Bible. They describe a covenant (an agreement) between man and God.
An agreement between man and GOd
The Jewish Holiday which celebrates the Jews leaving Egypt after the 10th plague.
The laws of God
1. Do not worship any Gods but me
2. Do not...bow down and worship idols
3. Do not misuse my name
4. Remember that the Sabbath day belongs to me.
5. Respect your father and mother
6. Do not murder
7. Be faithful in marriage. (no adultery)
8. Do not steal.
9. Do not tell lies about others
10. Do not want anything that belongs to someone else. (jealousy)
When the Isrealites returned to Canaan they were ruled by judges.
A group of Canaanites who lived on the Mediterranean Sea. They were sailors and had woods and built wood furniture they also. They spread goods and ideas through trade and brought the alphabet.
A group of letters which represented sounds and could spell words.
a fighting judge of one or two of the Isralites tribes
a group of the Canaanites that lived in cities along the Mediterranean Sea
The first king of Israel who was said to not follow Gods instruction because he displeased God another king was chosen, David.
According to the Bible David served Saul and he defeated the Philistine Goliath in battle. He is said to have driven the Philistines from the Kingdom and built the capital of Jerusalum.
The strongest civilization in Canaan at 1000 bc they had strong cities and could make iron tools and weapons
Someone who claims God talks to them.
The Capital city of the Isrealites said to have been built by King David. The stone temple built there by King Solomon is the symbol and center of the Jewish religion.
A wise saying.
After the death of king Solomon the tribe splint into the Kingdom of Israel with the Capital of Samaria and the kingdom of Judah with the Capital of Jerusalem.
forced to live in a foreign land.
When the Jews were forced out of Jerusalem and lived in Babylon. This is when Judaism developed.
The holey day of rest and worship.
Jewish houses of worship.
The scattering of the Jewish people outside their home land after the Babylonian exile. The Greeks exiled the Jews from Canaan. During this period Jews learned Greek and their religion and thought spread throughout the Mediterranean.
In 168 BC the Greeks controlled Judah. A priest named Judas Maccabeus.The Maccabees fought and drove the Greeks out of Jerusalem. They took back Jerusalem and united with the other tribes forming the kingdom of Israel.
The Jewish holiday which celebrates the Maccabees taking back the temple at Jerusalem. 8 days lighting a candle every day, eat fried foods, play dreidel and share gifts.
A ruler of Judea who was known for his cruelty and rebuilt the temple. He was king when Jesus was born.
A deliverer sent by God. Jews under Roman rule were waiting one.
A group of Jews during Roman time who fought Romans and drove them out of Jerusalem in 66 AD. The Romans took back Jerusalem a few year s later they destroyed the Temple and renamed it Palestine.