Human Biology

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87 terms · Heart and Blood Vessels

away from

blood in the arteries always travels ______ the heart

lungs

In the human systemic circuit, blood will pass through all, but which of the following: liver, limbs, lungs, digestive organs, brain

left

the systemic circuit leaves the heart from the __________ ventricle

left

the aorta leaves the ______ ventricle

right

the pulmonary artery carries blood away from the _____ ventricle

right

blood from the body is first received by the heart in the ______ atrium

venules

in its travel through the human body, blood usually continues on from capillaries to enter ______

arterioles

the greatest drop in blood pressure occurs in the ______

arterioles

by controlling their musculature, which of the following can vary the resistance to blood flow? arteries, veins, capillaries, arterioles

veins and venules

because of their great elasticity, which of the following can function as blood volume reservoirs during times of low metabolic output?: veins and venules, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, all of these

arterioles

which controls the distribution of blood?: arterioles, capillaries, venules

interstitial fluid

the blood makes pickups and deliveries most directly to ....

erythrocytes

extracellular fluid contains all but which of the following: erythrocytes, ions, white blood cells, lymph, water

release of iron to aid in the clumping of platelets

hemostasis in vertebrates includes all of the following except: blood clot formation, vessel constriction, release of iron to aid in the clumping of platelets, vessel spasms

fats

which is transported in greater quantities in the lymphatic system than in the blood: red blood cells, wastes, fats, amino acids, white blood cells

stomach

the lymphoid organs include all, but the: spleen, stomach, thymus, tonsils, appendix

lymphatic

the system which reclaims fluids and proteins that have escaped from blood capillaries is the: cardiovascular, pulmonary, lymphatic, sinoatrial, venous

body's organs

the aorta transports blood to the: right atrium, left atrium, jugular vein, body's organs

less

the wall of an arteriole has (more/less) smooth muscle than the wall of an artery

lymphatic system

excess plasma fluid in the tissues is returned to the cardiovascular system by the: digestive system, spleen, lymphatic system

Purkinje fibers (Southerners Always Ask About Prime Rib)

Sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, ________, ventricles

B) Atria contract, causing blood to fill the ventricles

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the phase of the cardiac cycle known as ventricular systole?:
A) The atrioventricular valves close
B) Atria contract, causing blood to fill the ventricles
C) The ventricles contract

C) Dilation of the blood vessels

which of the following is characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?:
A) increase in blood pressure
B) Secretion of the hormone epinephrine
C) Dilation of blood vessels

Veins are more distensible than arteries

Which of the following is a correct statement: Veins has smaller lumen than arteries; Veins are more distensible than arteries; Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body

blood pressure

baroreceptors regulate _______

capillaries

exchange of water and solutes between the blood and cells occurs in the ______

arteries

_____ carry blood under higher pressure than blood found in veins or capillaries

veins

_______ can store excess blood

aorta

the left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the ______

pericardium

the heart is contained within a tough fibrous sac called the

arteries

when blood first leaves the heart, it first enters the ______

heart sounds

the term lub-DUB is best associated with

pacemaker

the _______ regulates the rate of heart contraction

ventricular fibrillation

which of the following is typically treated by cardioversion?: stroke, aneurysm, ventricular fibrillation

right ventricle

which of the following is NOT part of the systemic circuit: capillaries of the body; aorta; right ventricle; aortic seminal valve

right ventricle

after blood flows through the right atrium of the heart, its next major destination is the ______

closing of the heart valve

heart sounds result from

pulmonary vein

which of the following blood vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart: carotid artery; pulmonary vein; iliac vein

deoxygenated, pulmonary trunk

blood pumped from the right ventricle is _______ and enters the _______

endocardium, myocardium, epicardium

describe the composition of the heart wall, from inside to outside....

left atrium; left ventricle

the bicuspid valve differs from the tricuspid valve in that the bicuspid valve regulates the flow of blood from the _____ to ______

protein molecules

as blood flows through a capillary, fluid moves from the blood into the extracellular fluid surrounding the cells. Which of the following does not move with this fluid into the extracellular fluid: water, nutrients, oxygen, raw material used by the cells, protein molecules

angiogram

an xray picture of the blood vessels

B) In order to maintain homeostasis, arterial blood pressure is allowed to fluctuate so that the oxygen/nutrient demands of various tissues are met

which of the following is NOT true regarding the regulation of blood flow:
A) Baroreceptors are important in the regulation of blood pressure
B) In order to maintain homeostasis, arterial blood pressure is allowed to fluctuate so that the oxygen/nutrient demands of various tissues are met
C) Blood flow to localized areas is adjusted to meet these requirements of that particular tissue

A) Lymph flows from lymph to lymph capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels to the heart and lungs

which of the following is NOT true regarding the lymphatic system?
A) Lymph flows from lymph to lymph capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels to the heart and lungs
B) The lymphatic system removes microorganisms from the body fluid
C) Lymphatic capillaries absorb liquid droplets from interstitial fluid

pulmonary capillaries

blood becomes oxygenated in the

atrioventricular valves

which of the following is not part of the cardiac conduction system: atrioventricular valves, sinoatrial node, specialized cardiac muscle cells

capillary

which of the following blood vessels has the thinnest wall?
capillary, arteriole, venule, artery, vein

erythrocytes

which cell is NOT the same type as the others: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes

erythrocytes

which of the following is NOT involved with the defense response: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes

platelets

which cell produces the fibrin used in blood clots

iron

hemoglobin contains which element

bone marrow

in adult humans, red blood cells originate in the ______

erythrocytes

in humans which cells does NOT have a nucleus when mature?: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes

erythropoietin

________ stimulates the red bone marrow to generate the red blood cells

kidneys

when the oxygen level in tissues is low, which of the following secretes enzymes that trigger the production of erythropoietin, causing an increase in red blood cell production?: lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen

B) During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system

which of the following is NOT true regarding the circulatory system?
A) This system ensures that waster products are removed from all tissues of the body
B) During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system
C) The circulatory system has an important role in the exchange of gases in the lungs

water

approximately 90% of blood plasma is made up of _____

hemoglobin

which of the following is NOT a component of blood plasma: nutrients, waste products, hemoglobin, water, proteins

produce antibodies

which of the following is not a characteristic of red blood cells?
produce antibodies, flexible, contain hemoglobin, transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

defend the body from disease

white blood cells differ from red blood cells in that white blood cells....

red blood cells

a scientist is interested in doing a research project on hemoglobin. from which of the following could he extract the hemoglobin for his study?: globulins; red blood cells; clotting proteins

hemoglobin

this is composed of four polypeptide chains, each with a heme group; it bonds to oxygen; iron is an important part of its structure; and is approximately 300 million molecules of this fill a red blood cell

deoxyhemoglobin

this type of hemoglobin would be found in blood flowing from an abdominal organ of the body

A) They carry oxygen from the cells to the lungs

which of the following is NOT true regarding red blood cells?
A) They carry oxygen from the cells to the lungs
B) Aged red blood cells are removed from circulation by cells of the liver and spleen
C) They live approximately 120 days
D) They do not contain mitochondria
E) They produce ATP by anaerobic metabolism

red bone marrow

regarding the recycling of hemoglobin, the iron atoms are returned to the ________

C) polycythemia vera

which of the following would a high hematocrit indicate?
A) inadequate red blood cell production
B) excessive production of platelets
C) polycythemia vera

erythropoietin

blood doping, practiced by some athletes to improve their performance, involves the abuse of drugs that resemble

red bone marrow

red blood cells and white blood cells are both produced in _______

spleen

dead and injured white blood cells are removed from circulation by the _______

white blood cells

what component in blood increases in number in response to the presence of an infection agent?

lymphocytes

B and T are best associated with....

large parasite

eosinophils are especially important in defending the human body from infection by _____

neutrophils

what type of white blood cell is capable of phagocytosis?

neutrophil

which of the following is classified as granulocyte? stem cell, monocyte, neutrophil, red blood cell

thrombopoietin

which hormone regulates the production of platelets?

C) vascular spasm

which of the following occurs first in the process of hemostasis?
A) formation of a platelet plug
B) production of fibrin
C) vascular spasm

globulin

which of the following is NOT directly involved in the process of blood clotting: clotting factor VIII, globulins, calcium ions, fibrin

clotting factors

prothrombin activator, thrombin, and fibrinogen are classified as ___________ factors

Rh

if an individual is O+, which antigens are on the surface of his red blood cells

B and O

what blood type can a person with type B safely recieve in a blood transfusion?

AB

Results of an ABO blood typing indicate agglutination reactions when anti-A and anti-B are added to the blood sample. the blood type of the individual would therefore be _____

mom is RH-; fetus is Rh+

hemolytic disease of the newborn could result from: mom is Rh __(+/-)___; fetus is Rh __(+/-)__

hematocrit

if a person were to stay at high altitudes for a long periods of time, his _______ would increase in order to compensate for the decrease in amount of oxygen in the air he is breathing

arterial

as an individual ages, the systolic blood pressure increases slightly, due to less elasticity in the ____ walls

lumen

the _______ of capillaries is so small that red blood cells must travel through these blood vessels in single file or sometimes actually squeeze through

systole

the cardiac cycle consists of a period of heart contraction called ______ and a period of heart relaxation called diastole

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