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Ch. 1-9

valid

based on evidence or supported by scientifically accurate data.

testimony

a firsthand declaration of fact.

credentials

titles, education, or training that verify a persons intellectual or professional ability.

infectious diseases

diseases that are caused by organisms that can spread through water, food, air, or human contact.

diabetes

disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a hormone needed to properly convert sugar to energy.

osteoporosis

a condition in which the bones lose their density and strength.

homeostasis

a condition of the body's internal harmony as regulated by interaction or many body systems.

optimal health

the condition in which a person is the healthiest that he or she can possible be.

social support network

people who are willing and able to provide emotional and physical resources to help you in the time of need.

chronic diseases

diseases that last for a long time with little change.

life expectancy

a measure of how long a person has left to live based on data related to current causes of death.

longevity

the length of a persons life.

metabolic rate

the rate at which your body uses food and oxygen to carry out various body processes.

genes

the small units of hereditary material found inside the nucleus of a cell.

risk factors

identifiable conditions or behaviors that increases one's risk of getting ill or injured.

health literacy

the ability to obtain, interpret, understand, and apply basic health information and services.

critical thinking

evaluating the worth, accuracy, or authenticity of issues and information leading to a level of conclusion that can direct thoughts or actions.

deductive reasoning

reasoning that begins with the general and ends with the specific arguments are based on laws, rules, and established principles, and conclusions are based on two or more premises.

inductive reasoning

reasoning that moves from the specific to the general; reasoning in which arguments are based on experience or observations rather than on laws or proven facts.

mind mapping

technique that enables you to organize and illustrate your thoughts using both sides of your brain.

opinion

A belief based on what seems to be true rather than on tested knowledge.

feedback

a way to check it you understand what someone has said (a common method is to restate in your own words what you heard and ask the speaker if this is what he or she meant.)

health risk appraisal

a computerized assessment of an individuals health age in relation to his or her actual age.

surgeon general

Highest ranking medical officer in the United States.

public health

sum of federal, state, and local health agencies and organizations working together to promote health and prevent disease for the community as a whole.

social support

real or perceived emotion and physical support received by family., friends, neighbors, and coworkers.

ecosystem

a complex collection of living things that share a specific environment.

wellness

behaviors and habits that have a positive influence on health.

social psychology

the study of how people's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

health promotion

policies and activities designed to encourage wellness.

wellness motives

the sum of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.

stress

the physical and emotional states experienced as a result of changes and challenges in our lives.

stressors

situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions in our bodies.

distress

a negative form of stress that occurs in reaction to something we perceive as bad

eustress

a form of stress that occurs in reaction to something we perceive as good but exciting

general adaption syndrome (GAS)

the body's physiological response to continuous stress; it includes three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

fight or flight response

the response of the nervous and endocrine systems to supply the body with energy to fight back or escape from a stressor.

job stress

the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the job does not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.

post traumatic stress disorder

a mental disturbance that results from experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event that is replayed over and over in the mind after the event is over.

homeostasis

the state of the body during relaxation when the body is functioning normally in a stable, balances state.

stress response

the physical reactions that occur in the body when a stressor is experienced

autonomic nervous system

the division of the nervous system that controls basic body processes that are largely involentary such as breathing, heart beat, blood pressure, and digestion.

sympathetic nervous system

the branch of the autonomic nervous system that responds to a stressor by accelerating body processes

parasympathetic

the branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows down body processes and returns the body to homeostasis after a stressful situation has passed

endocrine system

a system of glands, tissues, and cells that produce hormones to help regulate bodily processes.

hormones

chemical messengers produced by he endocrine system to help regulate bodily processes

cortisol

a significant hormone produced by the adrenal glands and involved in a number of body functions such as regulation of sugar, metabolism, and blood pressure.

psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

the study of the interrelationships among the emotions, brain, nervous system and immune system

stress hardiness

resilience when confronted with stressors, as identified by the characteristics of challenge, control, and commitment

mentally healthy

refers to a person who has the ability to perceive reality in terms of facts and can respond appropriately to a person who is in touch with his or her entire range of feelings and can express those feelings in an appropriate way

resiliency

the ability to bounce back after experiencing distressing or traumatic events

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

a well known representation of human needs progressing from most to least urgent; these include physical needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization

self-actualization

the highest level in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, representing an optimal level of mental and emotional function

identity

the recognition and expression of your uniqueness as a person, including your attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

defense mechanisms

mental strategies and behaviors used to protect ourselves from situations that cause conflict or anxiety

neuron

a specialized body cell that is the basic unit of nerve tissue

neurotransmitters

chemical substances that enable transmission of information among neurons

receptors

nerve endings that receive stimuli, as from the sense organs

outpatient

refers to treatment given to a patient during periodic visits to a health care facility or physicians office

inpatient

refers to treatment given to a patient who has been admitted to a patient who has been admitted to a health care facility

phobias

overwhelming, illegal fears of an event or object

cognitive-behavioral therapy

used by a trained mental health professional to help a patient alter his or her response to a stimulus

obsessions

unwanted and distressing thoughts or impulses that occur repeatedly.

compulsions

repetitive behaviors that are performed in response to obsessive thoughts

manic

referring to mania, excessive mental and physical energy often associated with mood disorders

schizophrenia

a brain disease that is perhaps the most severe of the mental illnesses

psychotic

referring to a mental disorder in which the patient loses touch with reality by way of hallucinations, paranoid behavior, and fantasy thoughts.

stigma

a belief that most people will devalue and discriminate against individuals who have a mental illness or seek treatment

psychotherapists

mental health professionals who are trained to treat mental disorders using psychological counseling techniques

psychiatrists

medical doctors who specializes in treating mental illness

suicide

a deliberate, intentional, self-inflicted act that results in one's own death

attempted suicide

deliberate, intentional, self-inflicted act that intended to cause death

complete suicide

a term used to describe a suicide attempt that results in death

conflict

a struggle caused by incompatible or opposing interests, values, needs, or desires

intrapersonal conflict

confusion or struggle within yourself

interpersonal conflict

disagreement or argument between persons or groups

deterrence

the use of threats by one party to intimidate another party from exercising a particular behavior

coercion

the use of physical or psychological threat or force to obtain a desired outcome

bullying

the use of threats or force by one person or group to intimidate another person or group

cyberbullying

the use of electronic information and communication technologies, such as internet or text messaging, to harass and intimidate

tolerance

respect for people whose beliefs and practices differ from yours

conflict resolution

a structured problem solving process that uses reflective awareness, communication skills, and decision-making skills to prevent, manage, and peacefully resolve conflicts.

negotiation

a process in which two disputing parties work out their own problems by talking through them without the assistance of an outside party

mediation

a process in which two disputing parties work out their problems by talking through them with an outside person who facilitates the discussion

compromise

a conflict resolution in which both parties give up something

boundaries

imaginary lines that indicate a limit beyond which you will not go

respect

family members do not belittle or demean each other

trust

family members do not intentionally hurt each other

honesty

family members tell you the truth

authenticity

family members are real and genuine

love

family members are able to express their positive feelings for each other physically and verbally

acceptance

family members allow the other family members to be themselves

commitment

family members are committed to the well-being of all the family members and work to ensure the best possible outcomes for each other

communication

family members learn and use good communication skills, not just by talking but also by listening and reading body language

problem solving

family members make the effort to acquire or develop good skills in problem solving

conflict resolution

when conflicts occur between or among family members, they have the necessary skills to work through the conflict and each a solution that is mutually acceptable to everyone involved

traditional family

a family that consists of two parents and their biological or adopted children

extended family

sharing a home with numerous relatives

blended family

a family created when one or both of the partners who remarry bring children from a previous marriage into the new family unit

step siblings

brother and or sisters who joined your family when one or both of your parents remarry.

family household

a householder and persons who live in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption.

personal identity

a unified sense of self, expressing attitudes, beliefs, and actions that are uniquely characteristic of you

dysfunctional family

a family in which family interactions negatively affect the physical, emotional, and social development and well-being of the individuals in the family

social support

aid and assistance exchanged through social relationships

social network

a person-centered web of social relationships

reciprocity

the "give and take" of a relationship; the evenness of exchange between the people involved.

self-disclosure

revealing personal information to others

reflective awareness

the ability to identify to yourself what you are thinking or feeling at any given moment in time

love

a feeling of strong affection and devotion, characterized by unselfish and loyal concern for the well-being of another

romantic love

a type of love that includes an attraction to another person based on affection and sexual interest

passion

a strong liking for, desire for, or romantic attraction to another person

intimacy

a close personal knowledge of another person, characterized by feelings of warmth and closeness

dating

going out with another person in whom you have a romantic interest

toxic relationship

romantic involvement that results in negative consequences for one or both partners

addictive relationship

relationship in which one of the partners uses power and control over the other in order to get what he or she wants

intimate partner violence

abuse that occurs between two people in a close relationship

hypothalamus

an area in the center of the brain that exerts nervous system control over the pituitary gland and the rest of the endocrine system

pituitary gland

pea-sized gland in the center of the brain that regulates most of the endocrine glands in the body

melatonin

a hormone produced by the pineal gland to help regulate sleep cycles

serotonin

a hormone produced by the pineal gland to help regulate nerve impulses

thyroid gland

gland that produces hormones that influence growth and development by regulating metabolism

parathyroid glands

four very small glands located on the thyroid gland that help regulate calcium

thymus

endocrine gland that helps with the development of a child's immune system

adrenal glands

set of glands on top of each kidney that produce two types of hormones that regulate the stress response and sexual development

androgens

male sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex

insulin and glucogen

two hormones produced in the pancreas that regulate the level of blood sugar

testes

male sex glands that are located in the scrotum and are responsible for male sexual development and sperm production

testosterone

the male hormone that is produced in the testes

estrogen

the female hormone produced by the ovaries to repair the uterine lining after menstruation and enhance feminine characteristics

progesterone

the female hormone responsible for developing the uterine lining during pregnancy

genitalia

the external reproductive sex organs

glans

the rounded head of the penis

circumcision

surgical removal of the foreskin

urethra

passageway from the bladder to the outside of the body

epididymis

structure adjacent to the testes where sperm are stored

ductus deferens

duct that transports sperm from the epididymis to the penis

seminal vesicles

structures that produce a component of semen that nourishes and protects sperm

prostate gland

accessory structures of the male reproductive system that supports movements of sperm

bulbourethral gland

small gland near the base of the urethra that produces a fluid that conditions the urethra for the movement of sperm

meiosis

the process of reducing chromosome numbers in reproductive cells to one-half the original number

mitosis

the process of duplicating living cells

semen

a translucent solution containing sperm and nourishing fluids from the seminal vesicles and the prostate

labia

folds of skin at the entrance of the vagina

clitoris

a small mass of erectile tissue above the vagina which, when stimulated, is the source of sexual pleasure for women

vagina

a muscular, flexible passageway between the labia and the uterus

cervix

opening to the uterus

uterus

a pear-shaped, muscular organ that provides the proper environment where the fertilized ovum develops into a fetus and assists with with childbirth

endometrium

the innermost lining of the uterus where a fertilized ovum becomes implanted and nourished during pregnancy

ovum

the female reproductive cell

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