Ch 6 Virology DNA/RNA Viruses
|Hepadnavirus||inflammation of liver (hepatitus), jaundice; yellow skin, brown urine (due to blood)|
|HAV Hepatitis A Virus||fecal/oral means, no long term liver damage, no trmt, vaccine available|
|HBV Hepatitis B virus||blood/body fluids transmission, long term liver damage; causes chronic liver disease or liver cancer. Concern for health care b/c can live in dried blood for up to 7 days; causes infection if comes in contact with broken skin.|
|HCV Hepatitis C virus||transmission by blood exposure, blood transfusion (donor blood) = most common way of getting infection, risk of LT liver damage, no vaccine|
|HDV Hepatitis D virus||transmission by exposure to blood or body fluids, requires co infection with Hep B, severe LT or permanent liver damage, usually seen with HIV patients|
|HEV Hepatitis E virus||fecal/oral transmission, endemic-associated with poor hygiene/sanitation; in Central Asia, Middle East, parts of South America & Africa.|
|Herpes Virus group||Group of 8 viruses, dormant stage (shows latency by reemerging) in human body, leads to relapse due to UV light (going to the beach), injury to area, fever, stress, immocompromised patient|
|HSV1 Herpses Simplex Virus 1||Location of infection = oral lesions in mouth, fever blisters,cold sores..90% of population infected, no treatment. Risk of herpetic whitlow --> health care worker who handles oral secretions with no gloves on fingers...lesions appear on fingers|
|HSV2 Herpes Simplex Virus 2||Location: gential; internal/external, thighs & buttocks. Characteristic symptom: lesions (blisters). Condoms dont protect, 20% of population infected.|
|EBV Epstein-Barr Virus||mononucleosis; transmitted by saliva, 'kissing disease.' Charateristic symptom: sleepiness, 16-20 hoours; No trmt - self limiting; Heterophile antibodies found in blood, attacks myalin sheath of spical cord. Can lead to CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome), Burkitts Lymphoma(cancer of lymph nodes), MS (multiple sclerosis)|
|VZV Varicella-Zoster Virus|| Primary infection = Chicken Pox -- rash on face, scalp, trunk.|
Re-emerges as: Shingles (>65 y.o. or cancer, HIV), Bells Palsy (temporarily paralyzed facial muscles).
Also: Reyes Syndrome possible w/aspirin: affect CNS - causes personality change, irritability, compativeness, confusion... or cause Death
|HPV Human Papilloma Virus||most common STD, causes gential warts and cancer. < 25 y.o. = 50%...by 50 y.o. = 80%. Treat c cryosurgery (freezing). Vaccine: Gardasil for 13-26 y.o., condoms do not prevent infection.|
|Parvovirus B19|| 5ths disease (5th in the line of red rashes); Characteristic symptom: slapped cheek appearence.|
Complication in adults: extreme joint pain for several weeks; No trmt--self limiting.
|Variola Virus||Small Pox, lesions, unique rash: bb's under skin with dimple on top, last seen in 1977, used for bio terrorism c Native Americans.|
|HIV Human Immunodeficieny Virus||Type 1 and 2: Type 1 is more common. Cell infected: T-helper, diagnose c blood test--> c HIV screen, takes 1-3 mo to produce antibodies if + do a Western Blot to confirm.|
Infection = AIDs; <200 CD-4 cells causes AIDS, virus converts RNA to DNA.
Treatment: Antiviral therapy to slow the progress of Aids, goal is to keep CD4 levels up, most common drugs: AZT aka "Hell in a Bottle" and Protease Inhibitors--enzyme to stop reverse transcriptase; use Combo drugs = "cocktail"
Can have HIV and not have AIDs (the disease part) for decades. HIV virus mutates many x/day and will mutate over a 100 million times by the end of the infection.
|Polio Virus||fecal/oral and fly transmission by contimated food/water, infects spinal cord (CNS); Vaccine: Salk injection & Sabin oral dose|
|Arboviruses||athropod-borne virus, caused by vectors: ticks, fleas, mozquitoes & flies. Found in warm climates.|
|Yellow Fever Virus|| Mosquitos; Causes yellow fever; Characteristic symptom: jaundice, brown urine, plasma. |
Vaccine available. Relevance to PA: 1793 the Capital of PA moved from Phili to Hbg due to an outbreak.
|Dengue Fever Virus||Mosquitos; Causes breakbone and blackwater fever, Characteristic symptom: severe pain in muscles & joints; black or red stool, jaundice.|
|WNV West Nile Virus||Transmitted by mosquitos; Reservoirs = birds, horses or people; Causes West Nile Vile; Characteristic symptom = encephalitis; No vaccine.|
|Influenza Virus Type A||H1N1- swine flue & H5N1- avian flue (bird flu)..H1N1 leads to pneumonnia and cause death; Complication = Gullian-Barre syndrome. No trmt-self limiting.|
|RSV Respiratory Synctial Virus||viral resp disease in children,lead to lifelong asthma|
|RhinoVirus||common cold, no abs destroy NF|
|Rubeola Virus||severe measles infection, flat spread rash, Kopliks spots in mouth,spread respiratory|
|Rubella Virus||mild form of measles, rash, unborn fetus|
|Mumps Virus||salivary glands, replication of virus in other organs, big cheeks|
|Coxsackie Virus||ulcers, lesions in mouth, rash on soles of feet and palms of hand,, very contigous|
|Rotavirus||stomach flu in children, vomit and diah, fluid.electorye replacement|
|Norwalk/Norovirus||stomach flu in adults, cruise ships, aerolization of vomit|
|Hantavirus||mouse urine and dropping, mouse deer, Southwest Us, chest pain-death|
|Ebola Virus||africa, hemorrgage fever-bleeding in every opening (DIC)|
|Rabies Virus||saliva of animals, raccoons, salivation, lyssavirus, CNS effected|
|Prion Proteinaceous infectious particle||brain, no nucleic acids compared to virus, control is to burn, kuru, scrapie, bovine encephlitis|
|Cancer causing viruses|| EBV HBV, HPV HTLV, virus turn genes on and off effection the immune system and other celluar process,|
burkitts lyphoma, liver, cercical, leukemia