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The most common route of metastasis is through the blood vessels and

lymphatics

Which of these is the most common malignancy in children?

Leukemia

A 55-year-old male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver were removed, the remaining cells would undergo?

compensatory hyperplasia

The role of physical activity in the prevention of colon cancer is identified by which of the following?

It increases gut motility therby decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to mutagens

The most important environmental risk factor for cancer is exposure to which of the following?

Cigaretter smoke

Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?

alcohol

Which information should a nurse include when teaching about angiogenic factors? In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate?

new blood vessel growth

A 45-year-old femal was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?

HPV

A tissue growth that is diagnosed as cancer is identified as

neoplasm

Whay types of cancer respond well to brachytherapy?

Cervix, head, and neck

A patient has a tissue growht that was diagnosed as cancer. Which of the following terms best describes this growth?

neoplasm

Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of which of the following types of cancer?

Colon

A proto-oncogene is best defined as a ________ gene.

normal

Whay types of cancers are associated with tobacco use?

squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas

Most childhood cancers originate from the?

mesodermal germ layer

Chromosome aberrations and mutations in cells that were not directly irradiated are referred to as:

bystander effects

Adjuvant chemotherapy treatment is used in which of the following situations?

after surgical removal of a tumor

Which characterize(s) cancer cells?

All of the above

(poorly differentiated, metastasis, infiltrative growth mode, and poor cellular cohesiveness)

Approximately what percentage of cancer diagnosed in children is cured?

70%

Which of the choices is NOT a characteristic of malignant tumors?

encapsulated

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