# Electric Circuits

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Definition of Electric Circuits

### Electric Current

rate fo flow of electric charge

### Ampere

One ampere is the amount of current flowing in each of two infinitely-long parallel wires of negligible cross-sectional area separated by a distance of one meter in a vacuum that results in a force of exactly 2*10^-7 N per meter of length of wire.

### Current

Current is defined in terms of the force per unit length between parallel current-carrying conductors.

### Closed Circuit

complete pathway for current

### Open Circuit

incomplete pathway for current
break in circuit
infinite resistance

### Short Circuit

Circuit with little to no resistance - extremely high current overheating

### Resistance

ratio of potential difference applied across a piece of material to the current through the material

### Power

energy per unit time

### Ammeter

measures currents

### Placement of Ammeter

must be placed in series to allow current to flow through it

### Ideal Ammeter

has zero resistance so it will not affect current flowing through

### Voltmeter

measures potential difference

### Placement of Voltmeter

must be placed in parallel to measure potential difference between two points circuit does not to be broken

### Ideal Voltmeter

has infinite resistance so it will not allow any current to flow through it and disrupt circuit

### Potential Divider

resistors in series act as 'potential divider'. they split the potential of the source between them.

### Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR) Light Sensor

a photo-conductive cell made of semiconducting material whose resistance decreases as the intensity of the incident light increases

### Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) Thermistor Temperature Sensor

a sensor made of semiconducting material whose resistance decreases as its temperature increases

### Strain Gauge Force Sensor

a long thin metal wire whose resistance increases as it is stretched since it becomes longer and thinner

### Resistance

ratio of potential difference applied across a piece of material to the current through the material

### Ohm's Law

for a conductor at constant temperature, the current flowing through ti is proportional to the potential difference across it

### Ohmic Device

a device that obeys Ohm's law for a wide range of potential differences (a device with constant resistance)

### Non-Ohmic Device

a device that does not obey Ohm's law (resistance is not constant)

### Potentiometer

a tie of variable resistor with three contact points (use as a potential divider)

### Electromotive Force (emf)

total energy per unit charge supplied by the battery

### Terminal Voltage

potential difference across the terminals of the battery

### Ideal Behavior

terminal voltage always equals emf since no internal resistance

Example: